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The Research Center.

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The Research Center is an indexed collection for Blockchain resources. In a community driven approach, resources on Distributed Ledger Technologies are collected, indexed, described and referenced. The result is a searchable and filterable knowledge base of high quality Blockchain sources. It can contain everything from relevant news pages, over podcasts to scientific papers. Help us fill the library!
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Blockchain Research NetworkCompany/ InstituteBlockchain Research Networkn.d., research, academia, university, whitepapern.a.The Blockchain Research Network is an independent network of researchers, broadly construed, with no formal affiliation to any institution. We welcome all members, irrespective of their formal status or relationship to research institutions, as well as industry members. Their website provides access to scientific blockchain sources from different areas.
Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash SystemWhitepaperNakamoto, S.2008, whitepaper, satoshin.a.The Bitcoin white paper has been written by Satoshi Nakamoto, the anonymous bitcoin creator who created the decentralized Bitcoin Network. The blockchain technology he describes in this article is not new, but using the combination of blockchain, cryptocurrency and proof of work resulted in the largest cryptocurrency that is still dominating the cryptocurrency market today.
Ethereum: A Next-Generation Smart Contract and Decentralized Application PlatformWhitepaperButerin, V.2013, whitepaper, smart contract, platformn.a.The original Ethereum whitepaper was written by Vitalik Buterin and published on his blog in December 2013. It was entitled “Ethereum: The Ultimate Smart Contract and Decentralized Application Platform.” The current version, which has been extensively revised since its inception, is stored on Github. Ethereum was inspired by Mastercoin and other early revisions of the Bitcoin blockchain, and is widely considered the first serious attempt to create a blockchain infrastructure capable of general distributed computing. It is used widely for running decentralized apps, Dapps across many industries, including enterprise solutions.
Ripple: The Ripple Protocol Consensus AlgorithmWhitepaperSchwartz, D; Youngs, N.; Britto, A.2014, ripple, interbank, cryptocurrency,, data, events, education
Tether: Fiat currencies on the Bitcoin blockchainWhitepaperTether Limited2016, stablecoin, usdtn.a.A digital token backed by fiat currency provides individuals and organizations with a robust and decentralized method of exchanging value while using a familiar accounting unit. The innovation of blockchains is an auditable and cryptographically secured global ledger. Asset­backed token issuers and other market participants can take advantage of blockchain technology, along with embedded consensus systems, to transact in familiar, less volatile currencies and assets. In order to maintain accountability and to ensure stability in exchange price, we propose a method to maintain a one­to­one reserve ratio between a cryptocurrency token, called tethers, and its associated real­world asset, fiat currency.
Litecoin WikiWhitepaperLitecoin Foundationn.d., cryptocurrency, zerocost, paymentn.a.Litecoin is a peer-to-peer Internet currency that enables instant, near-zero cost payments to anyone in the world. Litecoin is an open source, global payment network that is fully decentralized without any central authorities. Mathematics secures the network and empowers individuals to control their own finances. Litecoin features faster transaction confirmation times and improved storage efficiency than the leading math-based currency. With substantial industry support, trade volume and liquidity, Litecoin is a proven medium of commerce complementary to Bitcoin.
TensorchartsWebsiteTensorCharts.comn.d.https://tensorcharts.comENcryptocurrency, trading, heat map, order flow, is an online web application that visualizes live cryptocurrency and financial markets data for traders. The advanced toolkit includes order flow, market profile, heat map, market depth, support and resistance zones, bitmex trading statistics and more.
Tensorcharts, Open InterestWebsiteTensorCharts.comn.d., bitcoin, ethereum, open interest, bitmexn.a.Additionally to their main website, also provides you with live data on open interest of BTC and ETH pairs traded on the cryptocurrency exchange Bitmex. As one of the only open interest providers with, limited free access, it is definitely a valuable tool for anyone daytrading cryptocurrencies.
EOS: EOS.IO Technical White Paper v2WhitepaperLarimer, D.2017, smart contract, platformn.a.The EOS.IO software introduces a new blockchain architecture designed to enable vertical and horizontal scaling of decentralized applications. This is achieved by creating an operating system-like construct upon which applications can be built. The software provides accounts, authentication, databases, asynchronous communication, and the scheduling of applications across many of CPU cores or clusters. The resulting technology is a blockchain architecture that may ultimately scale to millions of transactions per second, eliminates user fees, and allows for quick and easy deployment and maintenance of decentralized applications, in the context of a governed blockchain.
Binance ExchangeWhitepaperZhao, C.; Wan, R.; Hofbauer, J.; Jankunas, P.; Yan, A.; Li, S.2017, exchange, cryptocurrencyn.a.In our view, there are fundamentally two different types of exchanges: the ones that deal with fiat currency; and the ones that deal purely in crypto. It is the latter one that we will focus on. Even though they are small now, we strongly believe that pure crypto exchanges will be bigger, many times bigger, than fiat based exchanges in the near future. They will play an ever more important role in world finance and we call this new paradigm Binance​; Binary Finance.
Monero: Crypto Note v 2.0Whitepapervon Saberhagen, N.2013, whitepaper, privacy, cryptocurrencyn.a.In this paper, we study and propose solutions to the main deficiencies of Bitcoin. We believe that a system taking into account the solutions we propose will lead to a healthy competition among different electronic cash systems. We also propose our own electronic cash, “CryptoNote”, a name emphasizing the next breakthrough in electronic cash.
Stellar:WhitepaperMazières, D.2015, federated, byzantineagreement, permissionedblockchainn.a.This paper introduces a new model for consensus called federated Byzantine agreement, FBA. FBA achieves robustness through quorum slices—individual trust decisions made by each node that together determine system-level quorums. Slices bind the system together much the way individual networks’ peering and transit decisions now unify the Internet.
Cardano: Academic PapersWhitepaperIOHK; Cardano Foundationn.d., academia, publicblockchain, smart contractn.a.Cardano is a decentralised public blockchain and cryptocurrency project and is fully open source. Cardano is developing a smart contract platform which seeks to deliver more advanced features than any protocol previously developed. It is the first blockchain platform to evolve out of a scientific philosophy and a research-first driven approach. The development team consists of a large global collective of expert engineers and researchers
Tron: Advanced Decentralized Blockchain PlatformWhitepaperTron Foundation2018, platform, smart contractn.a.TRON is an ambitious project dedicated to the establishment of a truly decentralized Internet and its infrastructure. The TRON Protocol, one of the largest blockchain-based operating systems in the world, offers public blockchain support of high throughput, high scalability, and high availability for all Decentralized Applications, DApps in the TRON ecosystem. The July 2018 acquisition of BitTorrent further cemented TRON’s leadership in pursuing a decentralized ecosystem.
Tezos: a self-amending crypto-ledgerWhitepaperGoodman, L. M.2014, proof-of-stake, smart contract, on-chainn.a.We present Tezos, a generic and self-amending crypto-ledger. Tezos can instantiate any blockchain based ledger. The operations of a regular blockchain are implemented as a purely functional module abstracted into a shell responsible for network operations. Bitcoin, Ethereum, Cryptonote, etc. can all be represented within Tezos by implementing the proper interface to the network layer.
Cosmos: A Network of Distributed LedgersWhitepaperKwon, J.; Buchman, E.n.d., internet of blockchains, tendermint, bft, scalabilityn.a.Strictly speaking, Cosmos is a decentralized network of independent parallel blockchains, each powered by BFT consensus algorithms like Tendermint consensus. In other words, Cosmos is an ecosystem of blockchains that can scale and interoperate with each other. Before Cosmos, blockchains were siloed and unable to communicate with each other. They were hard to build and could only handle a small amount of transactions per second. Cosmos solves these problems with a new technical vision.
Iota: The TangleWhitepaperPopov, S.2018, iot, dag, tangle, scalability, microtransactionsn.a.In this paper we analyze the mathematical foundations of IOTA, a cryptocurrency for the Internet-of-Things, IoT industry. The main feature of this novel cryptocurrency is the tangle, a directed acyclic graph, DAG for storing transactions. The tangle naturally succeeds the blockchain as its next evolutionary step, and offers features that are required to establish a machineto-machine micropayment system. An essential contribution of this paper is a family of Markov Chain Monte Carlo, MCMC algorithms. These algorithms select attachment sites on the tangle for a transaction that has just arrived.
Dash: A Payments-Focused CryptocurrencyWhitepaperDuffield, E.; Diaz, D.2018, masternode, privacy, fungibility, paymentn.a.A cryptocurrency based on Bitcoin, the work of Satoshi Nakamoto, with various improvements such as a two-tier incentivized network, known as the masternode network. Included are other improvements such as PrivateSend, for increasing fungibility, and InstantSend, which allows instant transaction confirmation without a centralized authority.
Polkadot: Vision for a heterogenous multichain frameworkWhitepaperWood, G.2016, on-chain, governance, interoperability, scalabilityn.a.Present-day blockchain architectures all suffer from a number of issues not least practical means of extensibility and scalability. We believe this stems from tying two very important parts of the consensus architecture, namely canonicality and validity, too closely together. This paper introduces an architecture, the heterogeneous multi-chain, which fundamentally sets the two apart. In compartmentalising these two parts, and by keeping the overall functionality provided to an absolute minimum of security and transport, we introduce practical means of core extensibility in situ. Scalability is addressed through a divide-and-conquer approach to these two functions, scaling out of its bonded core through the incentivisation of untrusted public node. The heterogeneous nature of this architecture enables many highly divergent types of consensus systems interoperating in a trustless, fully decentralised “federation”, allowing open and closed networks to have trust-free access to each other. We put forward a means of providing backwards compatibility with one or more pre-existing networks such as Ethereum. We believe that such a system provides a useful base-level component in the overall search for a practically implementable system capable of achieving global-commerce levels of scalability and privacy.
Maker: The Dai Stablecoin SystemWhitepaperMaker Team2017, stablecoin, maker, ethereum, collateraln.a.The Dai Stablecoin is a collateral-backed cryptocurrency whose value is stable relative to the US Dollar. We believe that stable digital assets like Dai are essential to realizing the full potential of blockchain technology. Unlike other Stablecoins, Dai is completely decentralized. Users can obtain Dai by buying it from brokers or exchanges, and Dai holders can utilize a special mechanic known as the Dai Savings Rate to earn a steady, low-risk return on their holdings.
NEO: A distributed network for the Smart EconomyWhitepaperNeo Networkn.d., smarteconomy, digital assets, smart contract, dappsn.a.NEO is the use of blockchain technology and digital identity to digitize assets, the use of smart contracts for digital assets to be self-managed, to achieve "smart economy" with a distributed network.
Chainlink: A Decentralized Oracle NetworkWhitepaperEllis, S.; Juels, A.; Nazarov, S.2017, oracle, on-chain, off-chain, securityn.a.In this paper we present ChainLink, a decentralized oracle network. We describe the on-chain components that ChainLink provides for contracts to gain external connectivity, and the software powering the node of the network. We present both a simple on-chain contract data aggregation system, and a more efficient off-chain consensus mechanism. We also describe supporting reputation and security monitoring services for ChainLink that help users make informed provider selections and achieve robust service even under aggressively adversarial conditions. Finally, we characterize the properties of an ideal oracle as guidance for our security strategy, and lay out possible future improvements, including richly featured oracle programming, data-source infrastructure modifications, and confidential smart-contract execution.
Hedera: A Public Hashgraph Network & Governing Council
WhitepaperBaird, L.; Harmon, M.; Madsen, P.2019, hashgraph, dag, performancen.a.Distributed ledger technologies, DLT have the potential to disrupt and transform existing markets in multiple industries. However, in our opinion there are five fundamental obstacles to overcome before distributed ledgers can be widely accepted and adopted by enterprises. In this paper we will examine these obstacles and discuss why Hedera Hashgraph is well-suited to support a vast array of applications and become the world’s first mass-adopted public distributed ledger.
Bitcoin MagazineMagazine/ BlogBTC Inc.n.d., research, education, finance, technologyn.a.Bitcoin Magazine is the oldest and most established source of news, information and expert commentary on Bitcoin, its underlying blockchain technology and the industry that has grown up around it. Since 2012, Bitcoin Magazine has provided analysis, research, education and thought leadership at the intersection of finance and technology.
BitcoinistMagazine/ BlogBitcoinist.comn.d., blockchain, news, revviews, educationn.a.Founded in 2013, Bitcoinist has quickly grown to become the prime source for the latest information about Bitcoin, digital currency and blockchain technology. Bitcoinist is now visited by over 2 million readers each month thanks to one of the most reliable teams in the space, consisting of three experienced editors and over a dozen writers. From business news and technical price analysis to community events, Bitcoinist provides valuable insight in its wide coverage of the entire cryptocurrency industry.
BTC EchoMagazine/ BlogBTC-ECHO GmbHn.d., education, bitcoin, cryptocurrencyn.a.BTC-ECHO ist die führende deutschsprachige Medienplattform in den Bereichen Blockchain, digitale Währungen und Bitcoin. Wir berichten tagesaktuell über alle wichtigen Entwicklungen an den digitalen Währungsmärkten und liefern unseren Lesern eine kritische und unabhängige Einordnung der Nachrichtenlage.
CCNMagazine/ BlogCCN.comn.d., markets, bitcoin,, also known as CCN Markets, was founded in the summer of 2013 in Norway by serial entrepreneur Jonas Borchgrevink as “”. Although bitcoin gained plenty of coverage in mainstream media, there were few crypto-focused online publications at the time. CryptoCoinsNews quickly became one of the largest and most trusted cryptocurrency news outlets, and the team behind it expanded rapidly.
CointelegraphMagazine/ BlogCointelegraphn.d., blockchain, bitcoin, news, charts, reportsn.a.Founded in 2013, Cointelegraph is the leading independent digital media resource covering a wide range of news on blockchain technology, crypto assets, and emerging fintech trends. Each day our team delivers the most accurate and up-to-date news from both the decentralized and centralized worlds.The editorial content is based on our passion to deliver unbiased news, in-depth analytics, comprehensive cryptocurrency price charts, insightful opinion pieces, as well as regular reports on the social transformation that digital currencies bring.
CoinDeskMagazine/ BlogCoinDeskn.d., data, event and educationn.a.CoinDesk is a media platform for investors exploring how cryptocurrencies and digital assets are contributing to the evolution of the global financial system. Its mandate is to inform, educate, and connect the global investment community through news, data, events and education.
Let’s Talk BitcoinPodcast/ Audio ChannelBTC Inc.n.d., articles, forumn.a.The Let’s Talk Bitcoin Network (LTBN is a publishing platform giving voice to the influencers in cryptocurrency and the blockchain technology sector — through podcasts, articles and discussion forums.
MediumMagazine/ BlogMediumn.d., articles, blockchainn.a.Medium taps into the brains of the world’s most insightful writers, thinkers, and storytellers to bring you the smartest takes on topics that matter. In the past years medium gained a lot of popularity for blogposts on blockchain technology.
Reddit, EthereumCommunity/ Social MediaReddit Inc.n.d., discussions, ethereumn.a.Reddit is home to thousands of communities, endless conversation, and authentic human connection. Whether you're into breaking news, sports, TV fan theories, or a never-ending stream of the internet's cutest animals, there's a community on Reddit for you.
Reddit, BitcoinCommunity/ Social MediaReddit Inc.n.d., discussions, bitcoinn.a.Reddit is home to thousands of communities, endless conversation, and authentic human connection. Whether you're into breaking news, sports, TV fan theories, or a never-ending stream of the internet's cutest animals, there's a community on Reddit for you.
EpicenterPodcast/ Audio ChannelEpicentern.d., bitcoin, blockchain, wallet, exchange, n.a.Epicenter is the OG of crypto podcasts, making sense of cryptocurrencies and blockchain since before they were cool. Through interviews with founders and buidlers, we explore the technical, economic and social implications of this game-changing industry.
Andreas Antonopoulos TwitterPerson/ AccountAntonopoulos, A. n.d., openblockchainn.a.Andreas M. Antonopoulos, @aantonop is a best-selling author, speaker, educator, and one of the world’s foremost bitcoin and open blockchain experts. He is known for delivering electric talks that combine economics, psychology, technology, and game theory with current events, personal anecdote, and historical precedent effortlessly transliterating the complex issues of blockchain technology out of the abstract and into the real world.
Changpeng Zhao TwitterPerson/ AccountZhao, C. n.d., exchange, twittern.a.Changpeng Zhao, Chinese: 赵长鹏 is a Chinese-Canadian business executive, who is the founder and CEO of Binance, the world's largest cryptocurrency exchange by trading volume, as of April 2018.[1][2] Zhao was previously a member of the team that developed and also served as chief technology officer of OKCoin
Charlie Lee TwitterPerson/ AccountLee, C.n.d., twittern.a.Charles Lee is a computer scientist, best known as the creator of Litecoin. He serves as the managing director of the Litecoin Foundation. As of July 2013, he also worked for Coinbase.
Vitalik Buterin TwitterPerson/ AccountButerin, V.n.d., twittern.a.Vitalik Buterin is a Russian-Canadian programmer and writer primarily known as a co-founder of Ethereum and as a co-founder of Bitcoin Magazine.
Andreas Antonopoulos YouTubeVideo/ Video ChannelAntonopoulos, A. n.d., openblockchainn.a.Andreas M. Antonopoulos, @aantonop is a best-selling author, speaker, educator, and one of the world’s foremost bitcoin and open blockchain experts. He is known for delivering electric talks that combine economics, psychology, technology, and game theory with current events, personal anecdote, and historical precedent effortlessly transliterating the complex issues of blockchain technology out of the abstract and into the real world.
Chris Dunn YouTubeVideo/ Video ChannelDunn, C.n.d., tradingn.a.Chris Dunn's YouTube channel is all about helping you learn skills to thrive in today's economy.
Cryptocurrency MarketVideo/ Video ChannelYouTuben.d., investingn.a.The Cryptocurrency Market was founded by Tai Zen , Leon Fu Dot Com™, & David Fong to help bring public awareness and accelerate the adoption of bitcoins, blockchains, and cryptocurrencies.
Epicenter BitcoinVideo/ Video ChannelYouTuben.d., bitcoin, blockchain, wallet, exchange, n.a.Epicenter is the OG of crypto podcasts, making sense of cryptocurrencies and blockchain since before they were cool. Through interviews with founders and buidlers, we explore the technical, economic and social implications of this game-changing industry.
Perceived Benefit and Risk as Multidimensional Determinants of Bitcoin Use: A Quantitative Exploratory StudyAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleAbramova, S.; Böhme, R.2016, risk, benefit37th International Conference on Information Systems, Dublin, IrelandKey Findings: Identify the impact of perceived benefits and risks on Bitcoin use as well as the technological aspects, decentralization, transaction speeds, security and control on the perceived benefit
Blockchain, Distributed Ledger Technology Solves VAT FraudAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleAinsworth, R. T.; Shact, A.2016, dlt, vat, fraudBoston University Law & Economics Research Paper, 41, 16Key Findings: Elaborate how blockchain enables particular efficiencies to EU VAT collection
Security and Privacy in Decentralized Energy Trading through Multi-Signatures, Blockchain and Anonymous Messaging StreamsAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleAitzhan, N. Z.; Svetinovic, D.2016,+Blockchain+and+Anonymous+Messaging+StreamsENdlt, security, privacy, energy, IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, 99Key Findings: Implement a proof-of-concept for decentralized energy trading system using blockchain technology enabling peers to anonymously negotiate energy prices and securely perform trading transactions
MedRec: Using Blockchain for Medical Data Access and Permission ManagementAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleAzaria A.; Ekblaw A.; Vieira T.; Lippman, A.;2016, healthcare, medicaldata, digitalidentity2nd International Conference on Open and Big Data, Vienna, AustriaKey Findings: Develop a blockchain platform for medical data exchange with access to anonymized data as mining incentive
Enabling blockchain innovations with pegged sidechainsAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleBack, A.; Corallo, M.M Dashjr, L.; Friedenbach, M.; Maxwell, G.; Miller, A.; Poelstra, A.; Timón, J.; Wuille, P.2014, sidechainBlockstream Findings: Develop and propose a sidechain-based concept for transferring digital assets between different blockchain platforms
Blockchain – The Gateway To Trust-Free Cryptographic TransactionsAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleBeck, R.; Czepluch, J.; Lollike, N.; Malone, S.2016–+The+Gateway+To+Trust-Free+Cryptographic+TransactionsENblockchain, cryptography, trust24th European Conference on Information Systems, İstanbul,TurkeyKey Findings: Develop a proof of concept prototype that has the potential to replace a trust-based coffee shop payment solution
Blockchain as Radical Innovation: A Framework for Engaging with Distributed LedgersAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleBeck, R.; Müller-Bloch, C.2017, framework, dltHawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Waikaloa, USAKey Findings: Case study in a financial institution analyzing the benefits of blockchain on transaction costs and developing a framework on properly rolling out blockchain systems
Disruptionspotenzial und Implikationen der Blockchain-Technologie am Fallbeispiel der Zeitarbeit–Eine Prozess-und SchwachstellenanalyseAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleBeinke, J. H., Tönnissen, S., & Teuteberg, F.2018–Eine+Prozess-und+SchwachstellenanalyseDEblockchain, process, workHMD Praxis der WirtschaftsinformatikKey Findings: Through a case study in the temporary employment industry, the application potential of the blockchain is discussed and advantages and weaknesses are worked out on the basis of a process analysis.
Copyrights, Privacy, and the BlockchainAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleBell, T. W.2016,+Privacy,+and+the+BlockchainENblockchain, privacy, copyrightOhio North University Law Review, 42, 16Key Findings: Explain the conflicting law in the United States regarding copyrights and privacy rights that could be overcome through blockchain technologies
The BLOCKCHAIN: The Future of Business Information Systems?Academic Paper/ Research ArticleBrandon, D.2016, informationsystem, ISInternational Journal of the Academic BusinessKey Findings: Explore and illustrate in detail possible business disciplines in which the blockchain can be utilized
Value Of Decentralized Consensus Systems – Evaluation FrameworkAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleBrenig, C.; Schwarz, J.; Rückeshäuser, N.2016–+Evaluation+FrameworkENdecentralization, consensus, framework24th European Conference on Information Systems, İstanbul,TurkeyKey Findings: Develop and test an evaluation framework regarding the value of decentralized consensus systems in order to provide a basis for the assessment of business models
A next generation smart contract & decentralized application platformAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleButerin, V.2014, whitepaper, smart contract, dappsEthereum Wiki Findings: Outlines the underlying ideas of Ethereum as a blockchain with a built-in Turing-complete programming language to create decentralized applications of arbitrary state transition functions
Developing Blockchain Real-Time Clearing and Settlement in the EU, U.S., and GloballyAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleCaytas, J. D.2016,+U.S.,+and+GloballyENblockchain, clearing, settlement, realtimeColumbia Journal of European LawKey Findings: Explain the diverse impact of blockchain technology on the clearing process and the related actors
Blockchains and Smart Contracts for the Internet of ThingsAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleChristidis, K.; Devetsikiotis, M.2016, smart contract, iot, internet of thingsIEEE Access, 4Key Findings: Investigate how a blockchain-IoT combination can cause significant transformations across several industries, paving the way for new business models and novel, distributed applications.
Modeling and Simulation of the Economics of Mining in the Bitcoin MarketAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleCocco, L.; Marchesi, M.2016, mining, economicsPloS one, 11, 10Key Findings: Develop and test a model through computational experiments that reproduces stylized facts from Bitcoin real-time price series and core aspects of the mining business
Centrally Banked CryptocurrenciesAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleDanezis, G.; Meiklejohn, S.2016, cryptocurrency, CBDM, digitalmoneyNetwork and Distributed System Security Symposium, San Diego, USAKey Findings: Introduce and test a cryptocurrency framework in which central banks maintain complete control over the monetary supply, but rely on a distributed set of authorities, or mintettes, to prevent double-spending
The Interplay between Decentralization and Privacy: The Case of Blockchain TechnologiesAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleDe Filippi, P.2016, privacy, blockchainJournal of Peer Production, 9Key Findings: Analyzes blockchain based networks to reveil the compatibility of transparency and privacy through cryptographic techniques
Information propagation in the Bitcoin networkAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleDecker C.; Wattenhofer R.2013, informationIEEE Thirteenth International Conference on Peer-to-Peer Computing, Trento, ItalyKey Findings: Analyze consequences of the Bitcoin multi-hop information propagation associated with blockchain forks
Rep on the block: A next generation reputation system based on the blockchainAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleDennis, R.; Owen, G.2015, blockchain10th International Conference for Internet Technology and Secured Transactions, London, UKKey Findings: Reviews and develops a generalized reputation system that can be applied to multiple networks that is based on the blockchain
The Economics of Bitcoin and Similar Private Digital CurrenciesAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleDwyer, G.2015, digitalcurrency, privacyJournal of Financial Stability, 17Key Findings: Explain how the use cryptocurrencies and limitation of their quantities can create an equilibrium in which a digital currencies have a positive value
Anonymity in Bitcoin – The Users’ PerspectiveAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleFabian, B.; Ermakova, T.; Sander, U.2016–+The+Users’+PerspectiveENanonymity, privacy, user, bitcoin37th International Conference on Information Systems, Dublin, IrelandKey Findings: Bitcoin user survey analyzing the effects of varying levels of anonymity suggesting that actions should be undertaken to increase privacy awareness and the level of anonymity
BRIGHT: A concept for a decentralized rights management system based on blockchainAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleFujimura, S.; Watanabe, H.; Nakadaira, A.; Yamada, T.; Akutsu, A.; Kishigami, J.J.2015, blockchain, digitalidentityIEEE 5th International Conference on Consumer Electronics, Berlin, GermanyKey Findings: Design a blockchain based content distribution system for digital rights management
On the Security and Performance of Proof of Work BlockchainsAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleGervais, A.; Karame, G. O.; Wüst, K.; Glykantzis, V.; Ritzdorf, H.; Capkun, S;2016, performance, proof-of-workACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security, Vienna, AustriaKey Findings: Analyze the security and performance trade-offs of proof-of-work blockchains regarding double spending and transaction throughput
Securing Video Integrity Using Decentralized Trusted Timestamping on the Bitcoin BlockchainAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleGipp, B.; Kosti, J.; Breitinger, C.2016, bitcoin, integrity10th Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems, Paphos, CyprusKey Findings: Proposes the use of blockchain technology to secure and verify the integrity of video files by presenting an application that converts a smartphone into a tamper-proof dashboard camera
Pervasive Decentralisation of Digital Infrastructures: A Framework for Blockchain enabled System and Use Case AnalysisAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleGlaser, F.2017, framework, usecaseHawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Waikaloa, USAKey Findings: Develop an ontology by explaining the common terminology and core concepts of blockchain technology and its implications for digital market models
Beyond Cryptocurrencies - A Taxonomy of Decentralized Consensus SystemsAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleGlaser, F.; Bezzenberger, L.2015, framework, taxonomy, consensus23rd European Conference on Information Systems, Münster, GermanyKey Findings: Provide a comprehensive taxonomy of decentralized consensus systems to facilitate the classification established and developing cryptocurrencies
On the Fintech Revolution: Interpreting the Forces of Innovation, Disruption, and Transformation in Financial ServicesAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleGomber, P., Kauffman, R. J., Parker, C., Weber B. W.2018,+Disruption,+and+Transformation+in+Financial+ServicesENfintech, innovation, financial servicesJournal of Management Information Systems, 35, 1, pp. 220-265Key Findings: Several main points related to how the fintech sector will develop over time, and what IS researchers can do in order to contribute new knowledge in this vibrant area of technology innovation, process disruption, and services transformation
World of Empowered IoT UsersAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleHashemi, S. H.; Faghri, F.; Rausch, P.; Campbell, R. H.2016, internet of things, digitalidentityIEEE 1st International Conference on Internet-of-Things Design and Implementation , Berlin, GermanyKey Findings: Describe a user-centric multi-level multiple granularity mechanism to share the data from IoT devices to people and organizations
Decentralized Banking: Monetary Technocracy in the Digital AgeAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleHayes, A.2016, financial services, defi10th Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems, Paphos, CyprusKey Findings: Investigate the feasibility of a blockchain based currency system to substitute a central bank
The Ring of Gyges: Investigating the Future of Criminal Smart ContractsAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleJuels, Ari; Kosba, Ahmed; Shi, Elaine2016 contract, crimeACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security,Vienna, AustriaKey Findings: Show that anonymity enables criminal smart contracts for various crimes such as illegale information leakage or the facilitation of realworld crimes
Towards a Framework of Digital Platform Disruption: A Comparative Study of Centralized & Decentralized Digital Payment ProvidersAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleKazan, E.; Tan, C.-W.; Lim, E. T. K.2014, platform, decentralizationAustralasian Conference on Information Systems, Auckland, New ZealandKey Findings: Present a framework for examining the disruptive potential of decentralized digital payment platforms on open innovation and market disruption acceleration
Beyond Bitcoin: Issues in Regulating Blockchain TransactionsAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleKiviat, T.2015, regulation, blockchain, transactionsDuke Law Journal, 65, 3Key Findings: Presents blockchain's cryptographic foundations to elevate the legal community's understanding of the technology and inform policymakers and practitioners regarding different regulatory schemes
Digital Supply Chain Transformation toward Blockchain IntegrationAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleKorpela, K.; Hallikas, J.; Dahlberg, T.2017, blockchain50th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 2017, Manoa, USAKey Findings: Investigate that blockchain integration into the supply chain provides major benefits regarding transaction processing and time-stamping
Hawk: The Blockchain Model of Cryptography and Privacy-Preserving Smart ContractsAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleKosba, A.; Miller, A.; Shi, E.; Wen, Z.; Papamanthu, C.2016, smart contract, privacyIEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy,San Jose, USAKey Findings: Develop a decentralized smart contract system that retains transactional privacy from the public by decrypting financial transactions
New Kids on the Blockchain: How Bitcoin's Technology Could Reinvent the Stock MarketAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleLee, L.2016's+Technology+Could+Reinvent+the+Stock+MarketENbitcoin, blockchain, stockmarket, defiHastings Business Law Journal, 12, 2Key Findings: Develop a peer-to-peer stock market system, analyze its legal implications and the fit with current legislation and regulation
Inclusive Block Chain ProtocolsAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleLewenberg, Y.; Sompolinsky, Y.; Zohar, A.2015, protocol19th International Conference Financial Cryptography and Data Security, San Juan, Puerto RicoKey Findings: Introduce a new kind of protocol which integrates the contents of off-chain blocks into the ledger and thereby increases the influence of weaker miners and increases transaction volumes
Opportunities and risks of Blockchain Technologies in payments – a research agendaAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleLindman, J.; Tuunainen, V.K.; Rossi, M.2017–+a+research+agendaENblockchain, payment, research50th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Manoa, USAKey Findings: Outline an initial research agenda and research questions for information systems research on blockchain based payment approaches
Sharing ledgers for sharing economies: an exploration of mutual distributed ledgers, aka blockchain technologyAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleMainelli, M.; Smith, M.2015, dlt, blockchainThe Journal of Financial Perspectives: FinTechKey Findings: Develop interlinked mutual distributed ledgers and identify their potential for financial services , anti-money-laundering, insurance, and credit services
Uncovering the Bitcoin Blockchain: An Analysis of the Full Users GraphAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleMaesa, D. d. F.; Marino, A.; Ricci, L.2016, blockchain, usergraphIEEE International Conference on Data Science and Advanced Analytics, Montreal, CanadaKey Findings: Analyze the Bitcoin network to identify centralized node and the agglomeration of wealth
From 'Blockchain Hype' to a Real Business Case for Financial MarketsAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleMorini, M.2017'Blockchain+Hype'+to+a+Real+Business+Case+for+Financial+MarketsENblockchain, usecase, defi, financial servicesJournal of Financial Transformation, 45Key Findings: Critically revise blockchain business cases for improving financial markets regarding reforms of the business model itself
The Commercial Law of Bitcoin and Blockchain TransactionsAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleMcJohn, S. M.; McJohn, I.2016, blockchain, transactions, scalabilityUniform Commercial Code Law Journal, 16, 13Key Findings: Investigate potential issues for commercial law associated with the proliferation of blockchain technology in commercial transactions
Blockchain technology in healthcare: The revolution starts hereAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleMettler, M.2016, healthcareIEEE 18th International Conference on e-Health Networking, Applications and Services, Munich, GermanyKey Findings: Illustrate possible influences, goals and potentials of blockchain technology for public healthcare management, user-oriented medical research and drug counterfeiting
Cryptocurrencies and Bitcoin: Charting the Research LandscapeAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleMorisse, M.2015, bitcoin, research21st Americas Conference on Information Systems, Fjardo, Puerto RicoKey Findings: Systematic literature review examining different cryptocurrencies
Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash SystemAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleNakamoto, S.2008, whitepaper, p2pBitcoin Findings: Proposes the original idea of Bitcoin as a peer-to-peer cash system with an underlying blockchain and eventual consensus via proof-of-work
Blockchain - A Financial Technology for Future Sustainable DevelopmentAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleNguyen, Q. K.2016, sustainability3rd International Conference on Green Technology and Sustainable Development, Kaohsiung, TaiwanKey Findings: Conceptually evaluate the potential of blockchain technology to enable a sustainable development of the global economy with benefits for the society and the banking sector
BlockchainAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleNofer, M.; Gomber, P.; Hinz, O.; Schiereck, D.2017 & Information Systems Engineering, ForthcomingKey Findings: Provide a comprehensive overview over different financial and non-financial applications in the blockchain universe
Securities, Intermediation and the Blockchain - An Inevitable Choice between Liquidity and Legal Certainty?Academic Paper/ Research ArticlePaech, P.2016,+Intermediation+and+the+Blockchain+-+An+Inevitable+Choice+between+Liquidity+and+Legal+Certainty?ENblockchain, liquidity, regulationUniform Law Review, 21, 4Key Findings: Outline a consistent international legal framework for securities building upon the possibilities created by blockchain technologies
Trends in crypto-currencies and blockchain technologies: A monetary theory and regulation perspectiveAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleGareth, W.P.; Panayi, E.; Chapelle, A.2015, blockchain, money, regulationJournal of Financial Perspectives, 3, 3Key Findings: Conceptualize benefits of blockchain based payment systems and perspective applications of crypto-currencies in the economy
Blockchain and Bitcoin as a Way to Lift a Country out of Poverty - Tourism 2.0 and e-Governance in the Republic of MoldovaAcademic Paper/ Research ArticlePilkington, M.; Crudu, R.; Grant, L. G.2016, bitcoin, governance, tourismInternational Journal of Internet Technology and Secured Transactions, forthcomingKey Findings: Investigate the blockchain capability to alleviate poverty in politically corrupted states by managing capital flows regarding modern tourism and e-governance
How the Blockchain Revolution Will Reshape the Consumer Electronics IndustryAcademic Paper/ Research ArticlePilkington, M.; Lee, J.2017, consumer electronicsIEEE Consumer Electronics Magazine, forthcomingKey Findings: Discuss the potentially revolutionary impact of blockchain technology on supply chain management and potential use cases in consumer electronics and the internet of things
The Law of Smart ContractsAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleRaskin, M.2016 contract, regulation, lawGeorgetown Technology Review, 304, 1Key Findings: Establish smart contracts as a modern version of traditional agreements that should not be discouraged by the legislatures or courts
Moving Beyond Bitcoin to an Endogenous Theory of Decentralized Ledger Technology Regulation: An Initial ProposalAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleReyes, C. L.2016, blockchainVillanova Law Review, 61, 1Key Findings: Review current regulatory landscape to improving the regulatory landscape regarding decentralized ledger technologies
Conceptualizing CryptolawAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleReyes, C. L.2017, cryptocurrency, regulationNebraska Law Review, 96Key Findings: Re-theorize cryptolaw as new jurisprudence regarding the implementation and delivery of law through smart contracting, semi-autonomous, and intelligently developing computer code
Overview of Colored CoinsAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleRosenfeld, M.2012, fungibility, privacyColored Coins
Key Findings: Develops the concept of colored coins as meta-data structures on top of the Bitcoin protocol to allow exchanging and tracking digital assets beyond money on the Bitcoin blockchain
Do We Really Want Blockchain-Based Accounting? Decentralized Consensus as Enabler of Management Override of Internal ControlsAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleRückeshäuser, N.2017, accounting, consensus13th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik, St. Gallen, SwitzerlandKey Findings: Assert that blockchain based accounting using proof-of-work consensus enables the circumventing controls by the management through excessive computing power
Proposal of new authentication method in Wi-Fi access using Bitcoin 2.0Academic Paper/ Research ArticleSanda, T.; Inaba, H.2016, digitalidentityIEEE 5th Global Conference on Consumer Electronics, Kyoto, JapanKey Findings: Propose a blockchain based solution to problems regarding open Wi-Fi hotspots such as insufficient encryption and illegal usage
The Ripple Protocol Consensus AlgorithmAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleSchwartz, D.; Youngs, N.; Britto, A.2014, consensus, whitepaperRipple: Findings: Propose the ripple consensus mechanism which builds on trusted sub-networks to achieve lower latency
Block-by-Block: Leveraging the Power of Blockchain Technology to Build Trust and Promote Cyber PeaceAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleShackelford, S.; Myers, S.2017, trust, peaceYale Journal of Law and Technology, 85, 16Key Findings: Analyze the potential impact of blockchain technology on advancing the cybersecurity of firms across various sectors and industries
Blockchain technology in the chemical industry: Machine-to-machine electricity marketAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleSikorskia, J. J.; Haughtona, J.; Kraft, M.;2017, chemical industry, M2MApplied Energy, 195Key Findings: Present an use case example where a blockchain is employed to facilitate machine-to-machine interactions and establish a M2M electricity market
An Agri-food supply chain traceability system for China based on RFID & blockchain technologyAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleTian, F.2016, supplychain, food, iot, internet of things13th International Conference on Service Systems and Service Management, Kunming, ChinaKey Findings: Analyze the applicability of a combined RFID and blockchain system for enabling traceability among the food supply chain
Bitcoin and Beyond: A Technical Survey on Decentralized Digital CurrenciesAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleTschorsch, F.; Scheuerman, B.2016, money, digital assetsIEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 18, 3Key Findings: Overview of literature on decentralized consensus mechanisms under consideration of different platforms
The Great Decentralization: How Web 3.0 Will Weaken CopyrightsAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleVogel, N.2016, decentralizationJohn Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law, 15, 1Key Findings: Point out the threat of blockchain technology regarding the support for copyright infringements and impediment of copyright enforcement
The Path of the Blockchain Lexicon, and the LawAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleWalch, A.2017, law, regulationReview of Banking & Financial Law, 36Key Findings: Critically revise the blockchain vocabulary to help regulators discover the facts about blockchain technology and respond to them appropriately
New kid on the block: a strategic archetypes approach to understanding the BlockchainAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleWalsh, C.; OReilly, P.; Gleasure, R.; Feller, J.; Li, S.; Cristoforo, J.2016, archetypes, usecase37th International Conference on Information Systems, Dublin, IrelandKey Findings: Review the blockchain literature and identifies eight key system design characteristics that underlie four ascertained blockchain archetypes
Blockchain contract: A complete consensus using blockchainAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleWatanabe, H; Fujimura, S.; Nakadaira, A.; Miyazaki, Y.; Akutsu, A.; Kishigami,J.J.2015, consensusIEEE 4th Global Conference on Consumer Electronics, Osaka, JapanKey Findings: Developing a new protocol to enable secure blockchain based contract recording
Blockchain contract: Securing a blockchain applied to smart contractsAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleWatanabe, H; Fujimura, S.; Nakadaira, A.; Miyazaki, Y.; Akutsu, A.; Kishigami, J. J.2016, smart contractIEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics,Las Vegas, USAKey Findings: Proposing a new consensus mechanism for securing hybrid blockchain based contract management against resource monopolization
The Bitcoin Ecosystem: Disruption Beyond Financial Services?Academic Paper/ Research ArticleWörner, D.; Bomhard, T. v.; Schreier, Y.P.; Bilgeri, D.2016, ecosystem, defi, financial services24th European Conference on Information Systems, İstanbul,TurkeyKey Findings: Classify the venture-capital backed start up ecosystem to identify susceptible business sectors and critically discuss Bitcoin's disruptive potential
Ethereum: A secure decentralised generalised transaction ledgerAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleWood, G.2014, transactionCryptopapers Findings: Discusses and formally defines further developments of the Ethereum protocol to implement a node on the Ethereum network and rely on Ethereum as a decentralized, secure social operating system
The Blockchain as a Software ConnectorAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleXu, X.; Pautasso, C.; Zhu; L.; Gramoli, V.; Ponomarev; A.; Tran, A. B.; Chen, S.2016, oracle, software13th Working IEEE/IFIP Conference on Software Architecture, Venice, ItalyKey Findings: Provide rationales to support the architectural decision making on whether to employ a decentralized blockchain as opposed to other software solutions
A Taxonomy of Blockchain-Based Systems for Architecture DesignAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleXu, X; Weber, I; Staples M; Zhu, L; Bosch, J; Bass, L; Pautasso, C; Rimba P2017, taxonomy, architectureIEEE International Conference on Software Architecture, ICSAKey Findings: Develop a blockchain design taxonomy that contrasts different aspects of decentralization, storage and computation, and configuration regarding fundamental and non-functional properties such as cost efficiency, performance, and flexibility.
An Online Identity and Smart Contract Management SystemAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleYasin, A.; Liu, L.2016, smart contract40th IEEE Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference, Atlanta, USAKey Findings: Propose a systematic framework for aggregating online identity and reputation information to provide a holistic approach to personal online behavioural ratings
Corporate Governance and BlockchainsAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleYermack, D.2017, governance, corporate governanceReview of Finance, 21(1Key Findings: Evaluate the effects of blockchain induced transparency on trades for insider trading, real-time accounting and transaction costs
Where is current research on blockchain technology?A systematic ReviewAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleYli-Huumo, J.; Ko, D.; Choi, S.; Park, S.; Smolander, K.2016, researchPloS one, 11, 10Key Findings: Reviewing existent blockchain research and identifying currently neglected technological challenges
Towards blockchain-based intelligent transportation systemsAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleYuan, Y.; Wang, F.2016, logistics, supplychain19th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilKey Findings: Develop and apply a conceptual blockchain model to manage transportation systems in form of realtime ride-sharing services
An IoT electric business model based on the protocol of bitcoinAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleZhang, Y.; Wen, J.2015, protocol, iot, internet of things18th International Conference on Intelligence in Next Generation Networks, Paris, FranceKey Findings: Develop and evaluate the transaction of smart property and paid data within IoT through smart contracts
A Secure System For Pervasive Social Network-based HealthcareAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleZhang; J.; Xue, N.; Huang, X.2016, healthcareIEEE Access, 4Key Findings: Design two blockchain protocols to illustrate the potential for pervasive social network-based healthcare applications
Interactive Incontestable Signature for Transactions Confirmation in Bitcoin BlockchainAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleZhu, Y.; Guo, R.; Gan, G.; Tsai, W. T.2016, transactions, signatureIEEE 40th Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference, Atlanta, USAKey Findings: Develop an interactive incontestable signature that assures transaction non-repudiation to secure unforgeability and incontestability of transactions
A Dispute Arbitration Protocol Based on a Peer-to-Peer Service Contract Management SchemeAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleZou, J.; Wang, Y.; Orgun, M. A.2016, protocolIEEE International Conference on Web Services, San Francisco, USAKey Findings: Propose an innovative service contract management scheme that facilitates the monitoring of the execution of a service contract in a peer-to-peer environment
Cryptocurrencies and BlockchainsBook/ Book ChapterDuPont, Q.2018, cryptoeconomics, blockchain, cryptocurrencyn.a.General scholarly cryptocurrency and blockchain books: From their shadowy origins in Bitcoin to their use by multinational corporations, cryptocurrencies and blockchains are remaking the rules of digital media and society. Meanwhile, regulators, governments, and the public are trying to make sense of it all. In this accessible book, Quinn DuPont guides readers through the changing face of money and shows how blockchain technology powers new forms of value exchange and social coordination. The reader will learn about cryptocurrency and blockchain developers and users, investment opportunities and risks, changes to politics and law, social and industrial applications, and what this all means for the new economy. Cryptocurrencies and Blockchains dispenses with hype and offers sober reflection on this crucial and timely topic. It is essential reading for students and scholars of culture, politics, media, and the economy, as well as anyone who wants to understand, take part in, or change the future of work and society.
The Blockchain and the New Architecture of TrustBook/ Book ChapterWerbach, K.2018, blockchain, trust, regulation, crimeThe blockchain entered the world on January 3, 2009, introducing an innovative new trust architecture: an environment in which users trust a system—for example, a shared ledger of information—without necessarily trusting any of its components. The cryptocurrency Bitcoin is the most famous implementation of the blockchain, but hundreds of other companies have been founded and billions of dollars invested in similar applications since Bitcoin's launch. Some see the blockchain as offering more opportunities for criminal behavior than benefits to society. In this book, Kevin Werbach shows how a technology resting on foundations of mutual mistrust can become trustworthy.General scholarly cryptocurrency and blockchain books
Programming Bitcoin: Learn How to Program Bitcoin from ScratchBook/ Book ChapterSong, J.2019, programming, pythonO'Reilly MediaTechnical books: Dive into Bitcoin technology with this hands-on guide from one of the leading teachers on Bitcoin and Bitcoin programming. Author Jimmy Song shows Python programmers and developers how to program a Bitcoin library from scratch. You’ll learn how to work with the basics, including the math, blocks, network, and transactions behind this popular cryptocurrency and its blockchain payment system. By the end of the book, you'll understand how this cryptocurrency works under the hood by coding all the components necessary for a Bitcoin library. Learn how to create transactions, get the data you need from peers, and send transactions over the network. Whether you’re exploring Bitcoin applications for your company or considering a new career path, this practical book will get you started.
Mastering Ethereum: Building Smart Contracts and DAppsBook/ Book ChapterAntonopoulos, A. M.; Wood, G.2018, solidity, programmingO'Reilly MediaTechnical books: Ethereum represents the gateway to a worldwide, decentralized computing paradigm. This platform enables you to run decentralized applications, DApps and smart contracts that have no central points of failure or control, integrate with a payment network, and operate on an open blockchain. With this practical guide, Andreas M. Antonopoulos and Gavin Wood provide everything you need to know about building smart contracts and DApps on Ethereum and other virtual-machine blockchains. Discover why IBM, Microsoft, NASDAQ, and hundreds of other organizations are experimenting with Ethereum. This essential guide shows you how to develop the skills necessary to be an innovator in this growing and exciting new industry.
Mastering Bitcoin, 2nd EditionBook/ Book ChapterAntonopoulos, A. M.2017, programmingO'Reilly MediaTechnical books: Join the technological revolution that’s taking the financial world by storm. Mastering Bitcoin is your guide through the seemingly complex world of bitcoin, providing the knowledge you need to participate in the internet of money. Whether you’re building the next killer app, investing in a startup, or simply curious about the technology, this revised and expanded second edition provides essential detail to get you started. Bitcoin, the first successful decentralized digital currency, is still in its early stages and yet it’s already spawned a multi-billion-dollar global economy open to anyone with the knowledge and passion to participate. Mastering Bitcoin provides the knowledge. You simply supply the passion.
Introduction Ethereum and Solidity: Foundations of Cryptocurrency and Blockchain Programming for BeginnersBook/ Book ChapterDannen, C.2017, solidity, programmingApressTechnical books: Learn how to use Solidity and the Ethereum project – second only to Bitcoin in market capitalization. Blockchain protocols are taking the world by storm, and the Ethereum project, with its Turing-complete scripting language Solidity, has rapidly become a front-runner. This book presents the blockchain phenomenon in context; then situates Ethereum in a world pioneered by Bitcoin.
Blockchain Enabled Applications: Understand the Blockchain Ecosystem and How to Make it Work for YouBook/ Book ChapterDhillon, V.; Metcalf, D.; Hooper, M.2017, fabric, sawtooth, programmingApressTechnical books: Work with blockchain and understand its potential application beyond cryptocurrencies in the domains of healthcare, Internet of Things, finance, decentralized organizations, and open science. Featuring case studies and practical insights generated from a start-up spun off from the author’s own lab, this book covers a unique mix of topics not found in others and offers insight into how to overcome real hurdles that arise as the market and consumers grow accustomed to blockchain based start-ups.
Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency Technologies: A Comprehensive IntroductionBook/ Book ChapterNarayanan, A.; Bonneau, J.; Felten, E. W.; Miller, A.; Goldfeder, S.; Clark, J.2016, proof-of-work, mining, bitcoin, blockchainPrinceton University PressTechnical books: Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency Technologies provides a comprehensive introduction to the revolutionary yet often misunderstood new technologies of digital currency. Whether you are a student, software developer, tech entrepreneur, or researcher in computer science, this authoritative and self-contained book tells you everything you need to know about the new global money for the Internet age. How do Bitcoin and its blockchain actually work? How secure are your bitcoins? How anonymous are users of cryptocurrencies? Can cryptocurrencies be regulated? These are some of the many questions this book answers. It begins by tracing the history and development of Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies, and then gives the conceptual and practical foundations you need to engineer secure software that interacts with the Bitcoin network as well as to integrate ideas from Bitcoin into your own projects. Topics include decentralization, mining, the politics of Bitcoin, altcoins and the cryptocurrency ecosystem, the future of Bitcoin, and more.
Digital Cash: The Unknown History of the Anarchists, Utopians, and Technologists Who Created CryptocurrencyBook/ Book ChapterBrunton, F.2019 assets, cryptocurrency, bitcoinPrinceton University PressSpecial topics / advanced learning books: Bitcoin may appear to be a revolutionary form of digital cash without precedent or prehistory. In fact, it is only the best-known recent experiment in a long line of similar efforts going back to the 1970s. But the story behind cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and its blockchain technology has largely been untold—until now. In Digital Cash, Finn Brunton reveals how technological utopians and political radicals created experimental money to bring about their visions of the future: protecting privacy or bringing down governments, preparing for apocalypse or launching a civilization of innovation and abundance that would make its creators immortal.
Blockchain and the Law: The Rule of CodeBook/ Book ChapterDe Filippi, P.; Wright, A.2018, regulation, governanceHarvard University PressSpecial topics / advanced learning books: Since Bitcoin appeared in 2009, the digital currency has been hailed as an Internet marvel and decried as the preferred transaction vehicle for all manner of criminals. It has left nearly everyone without a computer science degree confused: Just how do you “mine” money from ones and zeros? The answer lies in a technology called blockchain, which can be used for much more than Bitcoin. A general-purpose tool for creating secure, decentralized, peer-to-peer applications, blockchain technology has been compared to the Internet itself in both form and impact. Some have said this tool may change society as we know it. Blockchains are being used to create autonomous computer programs known as “smart contracts,” to expedite payments, to create financial instruments, to organize the exchange of data and information, and to facilitate interactions between humans and machines. The technology could affect governance itself, by supporting new organizational structures that promote more democratic and participatory decision making.
The Politics of Bitcoin: Software as Right-Wing ExtremismBook/ Book ChapterGolumbia, D.2016, liberty, bitcoin, crimeUniversity of Minnesota PressSpecial topics / advanced learning books: The first comprehensive account of Bitcoin’s underlying right-wing politics. Since its introduction in 2009, Bitcoin has been widely promoted as a digital currency that will revolutionize everything from online commerce to the nation-state. Yet supporters of Bitcoin and its blockchain technology subscribe to a form of cyberlibertarianism that depends to a surprising extent on far-right political thought.
Blockchain Research Lab, Arizona State UniversitySchool/ UniversityArizona State Universityn.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.We are Arizona State University students, faculty, and staff who believe in the positive impact blockchain technology can have on the world around us. We are developers building solutions, scholars performing research, and innovators working to change the world.The ASU Blockchain Research Lab’s mission is to advance the research and development of blockchain-based technologies for use in Business, Finance, Economics, Mathematics, Computer Science, and all other areas of potential impact. Since the Lab’s creation in early 2017, we have partnered with dozens of industry leaders to provide blockchain backed solutions for real-world problems. In Spring of 2019, the lab was recognized at the NuCypher + CoinList Spring Hackathon by winning the Community Choice Award.
Cambridge Centre for Alternative Finance, Cambridge UniversitySchool/ UniversityCambridge Universityn.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.The Cambridge Centre for Alternative Finance is an international interdisciplinary academic research institute dedicated to the study of alternative finance, which includes financial channels and instruments that emerge outside of the traditional financial system, i.e. regulated banks and capital markets. Examples of alternative channels are online 'marketplaces' such as equity- and reward-based crowdfunding, peer-to-peer consumer/business lending, and third-party payment platforms. Alternative instruments include SME mini-bonds, private placements and other 'shadow banking' mechanisms, social impact bonds and community shares used by non-profit enterprises, and alternative currencies such as Bitcoin.
Blockchain Summer School, Copenhagen Business SchoolSchool/ UniversityCopenhagen Business Schooln.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.The Blockchain Summer School will be held at IT University of Copenhagen on 12-16 August 2019. The Summer School is an initiative of the European Blockchain Center and run jointly for the fourth year by faculty members from IT University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen Business School and Copenhagen University. The Summer School would not be possible without the generous support of Our Partners.
The Initiative for Cryptocurrencies and Contracts, Cornell UniversitySchool/ UniversityCornell Universityn.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.C3 is an initiative of faculty members at Carnegie Mellon University, Cornell University, Cornell Tech, EPFL, ETH Zurich, UC Berkeley, University College London, UIUC and the Technion. It's based at the Jacobs Technion-Cornell Institute at Cornell Tech in NYC.
Blockchain Lab, Delft University of TechnologySchool/ UniversityDelft University of Technologyn.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.Delft University of Technology has numerous young, motivated and skilled students at phd, msc, and bsc level working in the Blockchain Lab. Our research is fundamental, aimed at the development and evaluation of new generic blockchain concepts, and application-driven, motivated by important application areas, such as transaction processing, e-commerce, and logistics. Much of it is experimental, validating the proposed new concepts by means of implementation and deployment in prototypes that are used in the real world.
Blockchain Center, Frankfurt School of Finance & ManagementSchool/ UniversityFrankfurt School of Finance & Managementn.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.The Frankfurt School Blockchain Center is a think tank and research center which investigates implications of the blockchain technology, crypto assets and distributed ledger technology, DLT for companies and their business models. Besides the development of prototypes, it serves as a platform for managers, startups, technology and industry experts to share knowledge and best practices. The Blockchain Center also provides new research impulses and develops trainings for students and executives. It focuses on banking, finance, mobility and, “Industrie 4.0”.
Center for Global Finance and Technology, Imperial College LondonSchool/ UniversityImperial College Londonn.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.Imperial College Business School’s Centre for Financial Technology has been established to act as a hub for the interdisciplinary research that is needed to develop innovations, reveal insights and answer questions; bringing together the activities of academics, startup companies, established industry and governmental organisations. The Centre benefits from Imperial College London’s leading position in science and technology, and Imperial College Business School’s outstanding finance department while taking full advantage of London’s unique position as a global financial centre.
Blockchain Futures Lab, Institute for the FutureSchool/ UniversityInstitute for the Futuren.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.The Blockchain Futures Lab is proud to be a winner of the ONC Challenge of Health and Human Services for the blockchain in health IT. Our paper, entitled “A Blockchain Profile for Medicaid Applicants and Recipients” introduces a strategy for creating smart health profiles that can provide easy access to health services while protecting privacy and security of individual health, financial, and citizenship information.
Blockchain Lab, Marquette UniversitySchool/ UniversityMarquette Universityn.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.The Marquette University Blockchain Lab, MUBL is a student-run organization that aims to accelerate the development and adoption of an open, inclusive and digitally native financial system. Such a system can only be built on blockchain and other distributed ledger technologies, DLT. Since our inception in November 2017, our members have engaged a vibrant mix of enterprises, professional associations and investors. MUBL can educate firms on the implications of technology and outline ways for the company to leverage emerging technology solutions.
MIT Cryptoeconomics Lab, Massachusetts Institute of TechnologySchool/ UniversityMassachusetts Institute of Technologyn.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.The objective of the MIT Cryptoeconomics Lab is to push the research frontier in the emerging field of cryptoeconomics.
The Media Lab Digital Currency Initiative, Massachusetts Institute of TechnologySchool/ UniversityMassachusetts Institute of Technologyn.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.The goal of the DCI is to bring together the brightest minds at MIT and elsewhere to conduct the research necessary to support the development of digital currency and blockchain technology. Together with collaborators at other universities and research institutions, we are working with interdisciplinary groups of faculty, students, and research scientists to author research papers, run pilot use cases of the technology, and develop relevant open-source software.
RMIT Blockchain Innovation Hub, RMIT UniversitySchool/ UniversityRMIT Universityn.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.RMIT University is known for applied leading-edge research that engages with business and technology. We are an interdisciplinary team of researchers in economics, political-economy, organisational theory, law, sociology, politics and communications. We work on cryptoeconomics, business strategy and adaptation to blockchain technologies, mapping the blockchain economy, and identifying the public policy challenges that will hold back or accelerate this economic revolution.
BlockLab, San Diego Supercomputer CenterSchool/ UniversitySan Diego Supercomputer Centern.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.With the goal of defining, evaluating and reporting on the key technical, business and managerial questions posed by blockchain and distributed transaction ledger technologies, their commercial applications, and their potential for causing significant disruptions in industry and government.​
Stanford Center for Blockchain Research, Stanford UniversitySchool/ UniversityStanford Universityn.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.The Center for Blockchain Research, CBR is a focused research effort on crypto-currencies and blockchain technologies. The center brings together engineering, law, and economics faculty, as well as post-docs, students, and visitors, to work on technical challenges in the field. The center's primary mission is to support the thriving ecosystem by developing new technologies needed to advance the field. Beyond its research mission, the center runs an extensive education and outreach program, including on-campus courses, MOOCs, workshops, and conferences for the general blockchain community.
Blockchain & Society Policy Research Lab, University of AmsterdamSchool/ UniversityUniversity of Amsterdamn.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.We study the societal impact of blockchain technologies from a law and policy perspective. We are thinking about questions such as: How are blockchain applications governed? What internal factors contribute to the success of a blockchain application?; How do different societal domains deal with blockchain technologies and their potential disruptive effect?;What are the most important regulatory issues around blockchain applications, and what are our policy alternatives?
University of Basel Blockchain/DLT, University of BaselSchool/ UniversityUniversity of Baseln.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.The CIF investigates the potential that these new technologies have and assesses the extent to which they will affect financial markets, industry, and society. In addition to its fundamental research in this field, the department will focus particularly on discussions involving politics, the public sector and private enterprise.
Blockchain@UBC, University of British ColumbiaSchool/ UniversityUniversity of British Columbian.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.Blockchain@UBC is a multidisciplinary research cluster focusing on blockchain technology as a central component in investigating the broader research question “How can emerging technologies be leveraged to benefit Canadians?” We engage in both research and education to advance the design, development and adoption of blockchain technologies. Our research initiatives bring academics and industry partners together to explore pressing issues and advance the emergence blockchain technologies. Our teaching initiatives span undergraduate, graduate, and executive levels to advance the knowledge and qualifications of students and professionals interested in blockchain technologies.
Blockchain Lab, University of California, BerkeleySchool/ UniversityUniversity of California, Berkeleyn.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.The UC Berkeley Blockchain Lab includes a growing network of leading new ventures and blockchain industry projects with the goal of separating hype from reality in this emerging industry.
Blockchain: UCI School of Social Sciences, University of California, IrvineSchool/ UniversityUniversity of California, Irvinen.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.Since 2011, researchers at UC Irvine have been studying new cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, as well as the blockchain technologies on which they are based. We have done so alongside research on innovations in mobile and digital financial services and their social, economic, and political consequences for people’s lives. Blockchain and similar systems represent the leading edge of a much longer, global history of accounting—the way humans keep track of reciprocal obligations, distribute and redistribute resources, preserve collective memory, and negotiate authority. Blockchain technology touches, in short, on reckoning in all of its senses, from mathematical to moral. We thus see cryptocurrencies and blockchain as the latest contributions to a vast archive of money’s diverse forms and functions: Mesopotamian cuneiform tablets and Inka khipu, double-entry and distributed ledgers, mag stripes and mobile wallets. We are an interdisciplinary group of social scientists, legal scholars, and technologists. From our vantage point in the public university, we study the implications of these new technologies, ranging from human rights monitoring to financial markets, supply chain management to contracts and identity.
The UCL Centre for Blockchain Technologies, University College LondonSchool/ UniversityUniversity College Londonn.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.The UCL CBT was founded in 2016 to research the effects of Distributed Ledger Technologies and Blockchain into our socio-economic systems and to promote the safe and organic development and adoption of Blockchain-based platforms. The centre is the nucleus for DLT and Blockchain research and engagement across eight different departments at UCL and for its Research and Industry Associate network. Our Research and Industry Associate community consists of over 180 researchers and practitioners from UCL, other academic institutions and companies utilising DLT.
IOHK Blockchain Technology Laboratory, University of EdinburghSchool/ UniversityUniversity of Edinburghn.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.The lab at the university of Edinburgh is led by Professor Aggelos Kiayias and brings together academics from various disciplines and students from undergraduate to PhD level to explore the many open and wide challenges presented by blockchain systems. The areas for study bridge cryptography, algorithms, game theory, economics, regulation and compliance, business, and law. All the research produced will be open source and patent-free. The lab is supported by funding from IOHK, a company leading research and development into blockchains as well as a number of other funding programmes including EU Horizon 2020 and EPSRC TIPS.
Blockchain Initiative, University of NicosiaSchool/ UniversityUniversity of Nicosian.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.The University of Nicosia, UNIC is, by most measures, the leading university globally in the digital currency and blockchain field. UNIC has long considered blockchain technology to be a fundamental technological breakthrough with significant financial and societal implications and selected it as one of its three interdisciplinary priorities across all schools and departments of the university.
Blockchain @ USC, University of Southern CaliforniaSchool/ UniversityUniversity of Southern Californian.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.A number of researchers at USC are working on developing the technology and applications of blockchain. These include ongoing efforts at the Viterbi School of Engineering, the Marshall School of Business, the Keck School of Medicine, and the Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism.
Blockchain Initiative, University of Texas at AustinSchool/ UniversityUniversity of Texas at Austinn.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.The University of Texas Blockchain Initiative has three main goals:, i to support faculty and graduate students research on blockchain across colleges at the University of Texas at Austin;, ii to teach students the main concepts related to blockchain, cryptocurrency, and digital payments;, iii to be the hub of knowledge for external relations with industry practitioners, policymakers, and media.
Scotiabank Digital Banking Lab, Western UniversitySchool/ UniversityWestern Universityn.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.The Scotiabank Digital Banking Lab, “Lab” was established in April 2016, supported by a $3 million gift over 10 years from Scotiabank. As the first university research centre focused on financial technologies, “Fintech”, the Lab’s mandate is to study and understand the implications of digital disruption for banking and financial services, and to prepare students to operate in an environment of changing technology and innovation. The Lab promotes student engagement, publishes targeted research, and engages in outreach to stakeholders in Canada and abroad
The CryptoEconomics Lab at Ivey Business School, Western UniversitySchool/ UniversityWestern Universityn.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.Cryptoeconomics is an emerging discipline which examines the protocols and incentives that govern the production, distribution, and consumption of digital goods and services within decentralized online platforms.
Blockchain Center, University of ZurichSchool/ UniversityUniversity of Zurichn.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.We are the UZH Blockchain Center .Being the largest of Switzerland, and home to the most diverse areas of Academia, the University of Zurich demonstrates a unique multidisciplinary approach to the field, with Faculty members from Computer Science, Law, Business, Finance and Complexity Science.
blockchain.lab, York UniversitySchool/ UniversityYork Universityn.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.We are researching ways to deliver the blockchain for the enterprise. Blockchain.lab is directed by Prof. Henry Kim at the Schulich School of Business at York University. It was founded by Prof. Kim and Dr. Marek Laskowski. We have engaged on blockchain projects with United Nations, Government of Canada, US National Institute of Standards and Technology, NIST, Toronto and Region Conservation Authority, Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Don Tapscott's Blockchain Research Institute, and several Canadian SME's and startups.The aim of blockchain.lab is to approach blockchain from a more circumspect, academic perspective.
The digital agenda of virtual currencies: Can BitCoin become a global currency?Academic Paper/ Research ArticleCiaian, B.; Rajcaniova, M.; Kancs, d. A.2016, cryptocurrency, exchangerate, supply, demand,Information Systems and e-Business ManagementThis paper identifies and analyzes BitCoin features which may facilitate BitCoin to become a global currency, as well as characteristics which may impede the use of BitCoin as a medium of exchange, a unit of account and a store of value, and compares BitCoin with standard currencies with respect to the main functions of money. Among all analyzed BitCoin features, the extreme price volatility stands out most clearly compared to standard currencies. In order to understand the reasons for such extreme price volatility, we attempt to identify drivers of BitCoin price formation and estimate their importance econometrically. We apply time-series analytical mechanisms to daily data for the 2009–2014 period. Our estimation results suggest that BitCoin attractiveness indicators are the strongest drivers of BitCoin price followed by market forces. In contrast, macro-financial developments do not determine BitCoin price in the long-run. Our findings suggest that as long as BitCoin price will be mainly driven by speculative investments, BitCoin will not be able to compete with standard currencies.
Apple Pay, Bitcoin, and Consumers: The ABCs of Future Public Payments LawAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleBurge, M. E.2016, bitcoin, consumers67 Hastings Law JournalAs technology rolls out ongoing and competing streams of payments innovation, exemplified by Apple Pay, mobile payments and Bitcoin, cryptocurrency, the law governing these payments appears hopelessly behind the curve. The patchwork of state, federal, and private legal rules seems more worthy of condemnation than emulation. This Article argues, however, that the legal and market developments of the last several decades in payment systems provide compelling evidence of the most realistic and socially beneficial future for payments law. The paradigm of a comprehensive public law regulatory scheme for payment systems exemplified by Articles 3 and 4 of the Uniform Commercial Codehas faded in relevance, while federal law has grown in a specialized consumer protection role. Meanwhile, private contract law has expanded to fill gaps where payment technology has exceeded the scope of public law.
How is Bitcoin money?Academic Paper/ Research ArticleBjerg, O.2016, credit, fiat, gold, money,Theory, Culture & SocietyBitcoin is a peer-to-peer electronic payment system that operates as an independent currency. This paper is a philosophical investigation of the ontological constitution of Bitcoin. Using Slavoj Žižek’s ontological triad of the real, the symbolic and the imaginary, the paper distinguishes between three ideal typical theories of money: commodity theory, fiat theory, and credit theory. The constitution of Bitcoin is analysed by comparing the currency to each of these ideal types. It is argued that Bitcoin is commodity money without gold, fiat money without a state, and credit money without debt. In conclusion, it is suggested that Bitcoin poses an ideological challenge to conventional forms of money in so far as it not only provokes sedimented beliefs about money but also exposes the forms of exploitation, risk and even violence inherent in the existing system of state authorized credit money.
A Denial of Service attack against fair computations using Bitcoin depositsAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleBeekman, J. G.2016, security, bitcoin, multipartycomputation, denial-of-serviceInformation Processing Letters, Volume 116, Issue 2, Pages 144-146, ISSN 0020-0190, supports complex transactions where the recipient of a transaction can be programmatically determined. Using these transactions, multi-party computation protocols that aim to ensure fairness among participants have been designed. We present a Denial of Service attack against these protocols that results in a net loss for some or all of the honest parties involved, violating those fairness goals.
Refund attacks on Bitcoin’s Payment ProtocolAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleMcCorry, P.;Shahandashti, S. F.;Hao, F.2016, bitcoin, blockchain, security, attack, paymentecurity, paymentystems, computerscience Cryptology ePrint ArchiveBIP70 is a community-accepted Payment Protocol standard that governs how merchants and customers perform payments in Bitcoin. This standard is supported by most major wallets and the two dominant. Payment Processors: Coinbase and BitPay, who collectively provide the infrastructure for accepting Bitcoin as a form of payment to more than 100,000 merchants. In this paper, we present new attacks on the Payment Protocol, which affect all BIP70 merchants. The Silkroad Trader attack highlights an authentication vulnerability in the Payment Protocol while the Marketplace Trader attack exploits the refund policies of existing Payment Processors. Both attacks have been experimentally verified on real-life merchants using a modified Bitcoin wallet. The attacks have been acknowledged by both Coinbase and Bitpay with temporary mitigation measures put in place. However, to fully address the identified issues will require revising the BIP70 standard. We present a concrete proposal to revise BIP70 by providing the merchant with publicly verifiable evidence to prevent both attacks.
How can cryptocurrency and blockchain technology play a role in building social and solidarity finance?Academic Paper/ Research ArticleScott, B.2016, blockchain, socialfinance, solidarityUnited Nations Research Institute for Social DevelopmentThe decentralized digital currency Bitcoin—and its underlying “blockchain” technology—has created much excitement in the technology community, but its potential for building truly empowering social and solidarity-based finance has yet to be tested. This paper provides a primer on the basics of Bitcoin and discusses the existent narratives about the technology’s potential to facilitate remittances, financial inclusion, cooperative structures and even micro-insurance systems. It also flags up potential points of concern and conflict; such as the tech-from-above “solutionism” and conservative libertarian political dynamics of some of the technology start-up community that surrounds Bitcoin. As a way of contrast the paper considers “blockchain 2.0” technologies with more overtly communitarian ideals and their potential for creating “cooperation at scale”. It concludes with suggestions for future research.
Opportunities and risks associated with the advent of digital currency in the CaribbeanAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleBissessar, S.2016, internet, fundtransfer, development, societyEconomic Commission for Latin America and the CaribbeanThis report examines the usage of digital currency technology in the Caribbean subregion with a view to drawing attention to the opportunities and risks associated with this new phenomenon. It discusses the broader context of an emerging activity at the global level and considers how this technology could address subregional deficiencies in the electronic payment infrastructure.
Bitcoin: The revolution of the payment system?Academic Paper/ Research ArticleWonglimpiyarat, J.2016, s-curves, cashless, paymentystem, revolutionJournal of Payments Strategy & SystemsThis paper discusses whether Bitcoin could revolutionise our payment system and replace our cash-based society. The analysis, in an attempt to understand the process of technological change, is based on the technology S-curve. This paper discusses the problems that hinder Bitcoin’s achieving wide adoption, as it has not been well received by international government central banks. Interestingly, the swing of S-curves is not strong enough to cause a paradigm shift. The results have shown parallel S-curve trajectories of electronic money innovations, signifying a move from a cash-based economy toward a less cash-based society. The paper provides useful information to support the diffusion of Bitcoin innovation.
Bitcoin: Main Trends and PerspectivesAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleEgorova, N. E.; Torzhevskiy, K. A.2016, trendsBritish Journal of Economics, Management & TradeThis paper discusses whether Bitcoin could revolutionise our payment system and replace our cash-based society. The analysis, in an attempt to understand the process of technological change, is based on the technology S-curve. This paper discusses the problems that hinder Bitcoin’s achieving wide adoption, as it has not been well received by international government central banks. Interestingly, the swing of S-curves is not strong enough to cause a paradigm shift. The results have shown parallel S-curve trajectories of electronic money innovations, signifying a move from a cash-based economy toward a less cash-based society. The paper provides useful information to support the diffusion of Bitcoin innovation.
The Other Side of the Coin: User Experiences with Bitcoin Security and Privacy?Academic Paper/ Research ArticleKrombholz, K.; Judmayer,A.;Gusenbauer, M.;Weippl, E.2016, userexperience, security, privacyFinancial Cryptography and Data Security 2016We present the first large-scale survey to investigate how users experience the Bitcoin ecosystem in terms of security, privacy and anonymity. We surveyed 990 Bitcoin users to determine Bitcoin management strategies and identified how users deploy security measures to protect their keys and bitcoins. We found that about 46% of our participants use web-hosted solutions to manage at least some of their bitcoins, and about half of them use exclusively such solutions. We also found that many users do not use all security capabilities of their selected Bitcoin management tool and have significant misconceptions on how to remain anonymous and protect their privacy in the Bitcoin network. Also, 22% of our participants have already lost money due to security breaches or self-induced errors. To get a deeper understanding, we conducted qualitative interviews to explain some of the observed phenomena.
Blindly Signed Contracts: Anonymous On-Blockchain and Off-Blockchain Bitcoin TransactionsAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleHeilman, E.; Baldimtsi, F.; Goldberg, S.2016, blockchain, privacy, anonymity, smart contract, signaturesCryptology ePrint ArchiveAlthough Bitcoin is often perceived to be an anonymous currency, research has shown that a user’s Bitcoin transactions can be linked to compromise the user’s anonymity. We present solutions to the anonymity problem for both transactions on Bitcoin’s blockchain and off the blockchain, in so called micropayment channel networks. We use an untrusted third party to issue anonymous vouchers which users redeem for Bitcoin. Blind signatures and Bitcoin transaction contracts, aka smart contracts ensure the anonymity and fairness during the bitcoin ↔ voucher exchange. Our schemes are practical, secure and anonymous.
Bitcoin CovenantsAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleMoser, M.; Eyal, I.; Gun Sirer, E.2016 language, consensus, standard block, logical location, script program Financial Cryptography and Data Security 2016This paper presents an extension to Bitcoin’s script language enabling covenants, a primitive that allows transactions to restrict how the value they transfer is used in the future. Covenants expand the set of financial instruments expressible in Bitcoin, and enable new powerful and novel use cases. We illustrate two novel security constructs built using covenants
Of Two Minds, Multiple Addresses, and One Ledger: Characterizing Opinions, Knowledge, and Perceptions of Bitcoin Across Users and Non-UsersAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleGao, X.; Clark, G.D.; Lindqvist, J.2016, cryptocurrency, cryptocurrency, interview SIGCHI 2016 ProceedingsDigital currencies represent a new method for exchange -- a payment method with no physical form, made real by the Internet. This new type of currency was created to ease online transactions and to provide greater convenience in making payments. However, a critical component of a monetary system is the people who use it. Acknowledging this, we present results of our interview study, N=20 with two groups of participants, users and non-users about how they perceive the most popular digital currency, Bitcoin. Our results reveal: non-users mistakenly believe they are incapable of using Bitcoin, users are not well-versed in how the protocol functions, they have misconceptions about the privacy of transactions, and that Bitcoin satisfies properties of ideal payment systems as defined by our participants. Our results illustrate Bitcoin's tradeoffs, its uses, and barriers to entry.
Retricoin: Bitcoin based on compact proofs of retrievabilityAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleSengupta, B.; Bag, S.; Ruj,S.; Sakurai, K.2016, human-computer interaction, pattern recognition, computer networksICDCN '16 Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Distributed Computing and Networking Article No. 14Bitcoin is a fully decentralized electronic cash system. The generation of the proof-of-work in Bitcoin requires large amount of computing resources. However, this huge amount of energy is wasted as one cannot make something useful out of it. In this paper, we propose a scheme called Retricoin which replaces the heavy computational proof-of-work of Bitcoin by proofs of retrievability that have practical benefits. To guarantee the availability of an important but large file, we distribute the segments of the file among the users in the Bitcoin network. Every user who wants to mine Bitcoins must store a considerable portion of this file and prove her storage to other peers in the network using proofs of retrievability. The file can be constructed at any point of time from the users storing their respective segments untampered. Retricoin is more efficient than the existing Permacoin scheme in terms of storage overhead and network bandwidth required to broadcast the proof to the Bitcoin network. The verification time in our scheme is comparable to that of Permacoin and reasonable for all practical purposes. We also design an algorithm to let the miners in a group, or pool mine collectively.
The Bitcoin Brain Drain: A Short Paper on the Use and Abuse of Bitcoin Brain WalletsAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleVasek, M.; Bonneau, J.; Castellucci, R.;Keith, C.; Moore, T.2016, wallet, passwords, cybercrimen.a.In the cryptocurrency Bitcoin, users can deterministically derive the private keys used for transmitting money from a password. Such “brain wallets” are appealing because they free users from storing their private keys on untrusted computers. Unfortunately, they also enable attackers to conduct unlimited offline password guessing. In this paper, we report on the first large-scale measurement of the use of brain wallets in Bitcoin. Using a wide range of word lists, we evaluated around 300 billion passwords. Surprisingly, after excluding activities by researchers, we identified just 884 brain wallets worth around $100K in use from September 2011 to August 2015. We find that all but 21 wallets were drained, usually within 24 hours but often within minutes. We find that around a dozen “drainers” are competing to liquidate brain wallets as soon as they are funded. We find no evidence that users of brain wallets loaded with more bitcoin select stronger passwords, but we do find that brain wallets with weaker passwords are cracked more quickly.
Incentive Compatibility of Bitcoin Mining Pool Reward FunctionsAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleSchrijvers, O.; Bonneau, J.; Boneh, J.; Roughgarden, T.2016, mining, reward, gametheory, bitcoinn.a.In this paper we introduce a game-theoretic model for reward functions within a single Bitcoin mining pool. Our model consists only of an unordered history of reported shares and gives participating miners the strategy choices of either reporting or delaying when they discover a share or full solution. We defined a precise condition for incentive compatibility to ensure miners strategy choices optimize the welfare of the pool as a whole. With this definition we show that proportional mining rewards are not incentive compatible in this model. We introduce and analyze a novel reward function which is incentive compatible in this model. Finally we show that the popular reward function pay-per-lastN-shares is also incentive compatible in a more general model.
Speed Optimizations in Bitcoin Key Recovery AttacksAcademic Paper/ Research ArticleCourtois, N.; Song, G.;Castellucci, R.2016, elliptic curve, cryptography, cryptocurrency, brain walletCryptology ePrint ArchiveIn this paper we study and give the first detailed benchmarks on existing implementations of the secp256k1 elliptic curve used by at least hundreds of thousands of users in Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies. Our implementation improves the state of the art by a factor of 2.5, with focus on the cases where side channel attacks are not a concern and a large quantity of RAM is available. As a result, we are able to scan the Bitcoin blockchain for weak keys faster than any previous implementation. We also give some examples of passwords which have we have cracked, showing that brain wallets are not secure in practice even for quite complex passwords.
Bank FrickCompany/ Institutebank@bankfrick.lin.d., regulation, investing Frick specialises in banking for intermediaries. The Liechtenstein bank offers a fully integrated range of classic and block-chain banking services. Its clients include Fintechs, asset managers, payment service providers, family offices, fund promoters, pension funds and trustees.
Nägele RechtsanwälteCompany/ Instituteoffice@naegele.lawn.d.http://naegele.lawDEtax consulting, lawyer firm specializes in public and private commercial law with an emphasis on IT, Internet, capital markets, telecommunications, business, corporate, employment, contract, and property law. At NÄGELE Attorneys at Law, we are proud to represent international companies, regional SMEs and family businesses, as well as private individuals and public institutions.
Sirius Trusted Technologies Ltd.Company/ InstituteSirius Trusted Technologiesn.d., trustee, escrow a rapidly evolving world of digital assets, there is a systemic lack of traditional safety and reliability. Since the executives of Sirius are very experienced in these topics and provide comfort, trust and sustainability for decades, they decided to offer services such as secure storage of digital assets. In addition, they are happy to advise clients on regulatory and structural aspects around the topics of Fintech, Blockchain, Token, TGE, STO, Bitcoin and other crypto currencies. AGCompany/ Instituteoffice@21.financen.d.http://www.area2invest.comDEfinance, regulation, investing digitalize the world of securities and token issuances with our marketplace area2Invest. In accordance with regulatory requirements we make financial products more transparent, cost- and time-efficient for investors and issuers.We offer a wide range of investment opportunities; Investor onboarding for non- and professional investors; Listing of traditional and tokenized financial products;Cross-border private and public placements
Ledgerlabs KranzCompany/ Instituteinfo@ledgerlabs.lin.d.https://www.ledgerlabs.liDEinformation, blog, research is a source of information for investors, entrepreneurs and interested parties on matters relating to Distributed Ledger Technologies, DLT. As a partner for blockchain, smart contracts and crypto-assets, Ledgerlabs offers a wide range of practical information in one place.
Calidris Fintech AGCompany/ Instituteinfo@calidris.emailn.d., regulation, investing decken die gesamte Wert­schöpfungs­kette der Fintech­ökonomie ab und geben unseren Nutzern mit unserem dezentral­isierten Wallet die volle Kontrolle über Ihre digitalen Assets.
Cryptomedia AgencyCompany/ InstituteCryptomedian.d., marketing is a creative digital and design agency based in Liechtenstein. We help blockchain & crypto start-ups achieve success through multi-channel community management. We provide on-going services for advertising, social media, content marketing, video messaging, and design. In short, we are doing, not talking!
Finanzmarktaufsicht LiechtensteinCompany/ Instituteinfo@fma-li.lin.d. Liechtenstein
Crypto Country AssociationCompany/ Institutehoi@cryptocountry.lin.d., education Crypto Country Association is an association dedicated to supporting the blockchain and crypto currency sector in Liechtenstein. The aim is to coordinate the application and dissemination of these areas in Liechtenstein and beyond and at the same time to ensure quality. The association maintains close contact with authorities, associations and industry representatives.
Technopark Liechtenstein AGCompany/ Instituteoffice@tpfl.lin.d. space, programming room for technology startups. We help our members to realize their ideas. Technopark Liechtenstein offers space for new cooperation, for ideas, technological inventions and developments and, above all, for what makes startups successful: people.
SMART VALOR AGCompany/ Institutetalk@smartvalor.comn.d., regulation, investing Token Exchange for Alternative Investments. We tokenize, list and trade alternative investments such as shares in private companies, venture capital funds, real estate and digital assets.
Cryptoz LiechtensteinCompany/ Instituteinfo@cryptoz.lin.d., finance, regulation Liechtenstein is the right partner for blockchain companies who are looking for a service ecosystem which allows to accelerate their business. With our client onboarding platform we are the major service provider for onboarding & compliance outsourcing tailored to ICO/STOs but also financial institutions
Distributed Ventures AGCompany/ Instituteoffice@distributed-ventures.lin.d., accellerator, consulting, venture capital Accelerator. Blockchain-Hub – a Bank Frick Company
INVAO Trading AGCompany/ Institutewelcome@invao.orgn.d., regulation, investing is a global Blockchain Investment Management company. We develop sophisticated financial products with a cross-industry approach to enable investors to participate in Blockchain’s growth potential.
Validity Labs AGCompany/ Instituteinfo@validitylabs.orgn.d., development, programming offer education services on blockchain technology. We can help you on your business problem with a Blockchain Business Case Identifier, BCI Workshop. We can also support you to build up the technical blockchain understanding by a hands-on Hackathon as a Service, HAAS or a DApp Developer Training.
Niedermüller Rechtsanwalt - Attorney at LawCompany/ Instituteoffice@niedermueller.lawn.d. consulting, lawyer advise and represent investors in the area of investments in the assertion of claims for damages, in particular in the area of unit-linked life insurance, guaranteed life insurance products or structured and credit-financed, leveraged investment products.
Universität LiechtensteinCompany/ Instituteinfo@uni.lin.d., education February, the University of Liechtenstein launched a certificate course “Blockchain in Finance and FinTech”. This new course is supported by Bank Frick. The bank supports the development and implementation of the continuing education program over the next five years.
BATLINER WANGER BATLINER Rechtsanwälte AGCompany/ Instituteoffice@bwb.lin.d. consulting, lawyer WANGER BATLINER Rechtsanwälte AG is one of the largest forensically active law firms in Liechtenstein with headquarters in Vaduz.
House of BlockchainCompany/ Instituteinfo@aeternity.comn.d., research, education the heart of Liechtenstein’s financial and legal center, House of Blockchain offers a space for your ideas to flourish. House of Blockchain’s mission is to become the hub and enabler of innovation, helping extend the reach of blockchain technology – both in Liechtenstein and the world.
Blockchain Meetup LiechtensteinCompany/ InstituteBlockchain Meetup Liechtensteinn.d., event to the blockchain community in Liechtenstein and beyond. Everyone is welcome! We are all interested in innovation and blockchain technology with different use cases. We have competent speakers reporting on interesting topics to give you exciting insights first-hand. Discover with us various streams of innovation and let yourselves float to our events.
Ganten Treuhand AGCompany/ Instituteinfo@gantengroup.comn.d.https://www.gantengroup.comDEconsulting, trustee, escrow is an independent fiduciary services group domiciled in Liechtenstein. We provide a personal service with direct access to the firm’s principals. Through our specialist in-house expertise and external network of domestic and international professional advisors, we offer relevant and practical solutions tailored to our clients’ specific requirements. We cooperate closely with one of the most renowned local law firms and thus guarantee excellent legal support in all relevant matters.
Bitcoin Suisse, Liechtenstein AGCompany/ Instituteinfo@bitcoinsuisse.comn.d., regulation, investing Suisse is pioneering crypto-financial services since 2013. The company played a crucial role in the development of the Crypto Valley and the overall Swiss blockchain ecosystem. The services provided to the global institutional and private client base include Brokerage and Trading, Storage Solutions, Collateralized Lending, Crypto Financial Solutions and other related services such as Staking and Baking.
CoreLedger AGCompany/ Institutecontact@coreledger.netn.d.http://coreledger.netDEdevelopment, programming provides a decentralized, unlimited, and extendable operating system for token economies, designed for all types of assets, commodities, and services. CoreLedger AG was founded in Liechtenstein, in March 2017.
ICO.liCompany/ InstituteICO.lin.d., blog Blockchain Blog from Liechtenstein
SygnumCompany/ Instituteinfo@sygnum.comn.d., banking, defin.a.Sygnum is a technology-driven company that empowers financial services for the digital
asset economy. It develops an integrated solution to securely issue, store, trade and manage digital assets. The company was founded by an experienced, interdisciplinary team of experts and is backed by a distinguished group of individuals and institutions. Sygnum is rooted in two of the world‘s leading financial hubs – Singapore and Switzerland.
HDACCompany/ InstituteHdac Technology AGn.d., blockchainn.a.Hdac is a blockchain based platform backed by Hyundai BS&C. The platform allows IoT
devices to quickly and effectively communicate, handling identity, authentication, data storage and micro-payments. Hdac will develop a new blockchain based on multichain capable of handling the scale and contract functionality required for an IoT platform, as well as bridges to Bitcoin and Ethereum to facilitate payments. IoT devices powered by Hdac will mean more actionable data to improve lives, businesses and governments. It differs from other IoT offerings by the convergence of the private blockchain and the public blockchain which creates a faster transaction speed.
EtheriscCompany/ Institutecontact@etherisc.comn.d., insurance, smart contractn.a.Etherisc‘s mission is to build decentralized insurance applications, making the purchase and sale of insurance more efficient, enabling lower operational costs, increase transparency of insurance compared to traditional operations, and democratize access to reinsurance investments.
ICONCompany/ Institutehello@icon.foundationn.d., blockchainn.a.The ICON project is building one of the largest decentralized networks in the world. Promotion and development of new technologies and applications, especially in the areas of new open and decentralized software architectures. In the foreground - but not exclusively - is the promotion and development of the so-called ICON protocol and the corresponding technologies, as well as the promotion and support of applications using the ICON protocol.
4ARTechnologiesCompany/ Instituteinfo@4art-technologies.comn.d., artn.a.Hundreds of million dollars are lost to art fraud each year. With our powerful image-capturing software, we render artworks forgery-proof. This new authentication standard logs an
artwork’s unique fingerprint, its history and provenance on the blockchain – balancing the
industry’s need for greater transparency with state-of-the-art security.
ModumCompany/ Instituteinfo@modum.ion.d., sensor devices record environmental conditions while physical products are in transit. When a change in ownership occurs, the collected data is checked against a specific smart contract in the blockchain. This contract validates that the transaction meets all of the standards set out by the sender, their clients, or the regulator and triggers various actions: notifications to sender and receiver, release of goods, payment, etc
Smart ContainersCompany/ Institutecontact@smartcontainers.chn.d., iot, logisticsn.a.Smart Containers develops, builds and rents out airfreight containers for medicine & food transports. We combine cutting-edge technology and IoT sensors in a logistics ecosystem on blockchain.
NexoCompany/ Instituteinfo@nexo.ion.d., cryptocurrency, creditn.a.Over the past 10 years, nexo has been providing instant loans to millions of people across
Europe. We believe that the expanding digital world helps improve our lives. They would
like to contribute by providing the World‘s First Instant Crypto-backed Loans. Nexo - enjoy
your crypto wealth today without selling your crypto assets!
Mt. PelerinCompany/ Institutehello@mtpelerin.comn.d., banking, defin.a.Unlike traditional banks, MtPelerin won‘t use your money to invest for our own profit. Instead, 100% of the currencies deposited on our accounts will be kept in reserve at all time.
This reserve and its movements are recorded on Ethereum blockchain, and are therefore
completely transparent in a permanent and immutable way. Their reserves are visible to all
in real-time, while the state of individual accounts remain confidential.
Deon DigitalCompany/, smart contract, dltn.a.Deon Digital has developed a programming language and operating system to create and manage truly digital contracts, which you can use to build digitized enterprise processes and future business ecosystems. We aim to “tear down walls” not only within, but also between organizations: letting information, ideas and transactions flow freely — and exactly where, when and how they should.
GolemCompany/ Institutecontact@golem.networkn.d., computation, computingpowern.a.Golem is a global, open source, decentralized supercomputer that anyone can access. It is made up of the combined power of users machines, from PCs to entire data centers.
Shift CryptosecurityCompany/ InstituteShift Cryptosecurityn.d., wallet, custodyn.a.Digital Bitbox is a minimalist bitcoin hardware wallet packed with security and privacy. Safely hold and spend your coins with peace of mind.
BitmainCompany/ InstituteBitmainn.d., exchangen.a.Bitmain is a blockchain and semiconductor company, dedicated to the design and manufacture of high performance computing chips and software. They serve their customers globally with industry-defining technology – blockchain securitization, AI machine learning and
more. Bitmain’s Fintech hub including a decentralized exchange is located in Switzerland.
AeternityCompany/ InstituteAeternityn.d., blockchainn.a.æternity is a new blockchain technology, designed to deliver unmatched efficiency, transparent governance and global scalability. æternity is a scalable blockchain platform that enables high bandwidth transacting, purely-functional smart contracts, and decentralized
AragonCompany/ InstituteAragonn.d., blockchainn.a.Create value without borders or intermediaries. They are building Aragon because they believe decentralized organizations can solve the world’s worst problems. Aragon is a project that aims to disintermediate the creation and maintenance of organizational structures by using blockchain technology. They want to empower people across the world to easily and securely manage their organizations
BancorCompany/ InstituteBancorn.d., tokenn.a.Bancor allows you to convert between any two tokens on their network, with no counterparty, at an automatically calculated price. Thanks to built-in liquidity, the future of user-generated tokens is here.
CardanoCompany/ InstituteCardanon.d., blockchainn.a.Cardano is a decentralised public blockchain and cryptocurrency project and is fully open source. Cardano is developing a smart contract platform which seeks to deliver more advanced features than any protocol previously developed.
Dfinity NetworkCompany/ InstituteDfinity Networkn.d., blockchainn.a.Dfinity is a blockchain based world computer network that is powerful enough to host business applications at scale. The network features a variety of innovations in the blockchain space. The Dfinity network is self-governing through the use of an adaptive network called the Blockchain Nervous System, BNS. The network is also capable of achieving transaction finality at an average speed of 7.5 seconds due to advancements in random number generation and selection. The Dfinity protocol uses Verifiable Random Functions, VRFs, BLS Cryptography and the Threshold Relay technique, powered by a random beacon to achieve these speeds.
EthereumCompany/ InstituteEthereumn.d., blockchain, smart contractn.a.Ethereum is a decentralized platform that runs smart contracts: applications that run exactly as programmed without any possibility of downtime, censorship, fraud or third-party interference. These apps run on a custom built blockchain, an enormously powerful shared
global infrastructure that can move value around and represent the ownership of property. This enables developers to create markets, store registries of debts or promises, move funds in accordance with instructions given long in the past, like a will or a futures contract and many other things that have not been invented yet, all without a middleman or counterparty risk
Utopia MusicCompany/ InstituteUtopia Musicn.d., musicn.a.Utopias mission is to reclaim the creative and economic value of the music industry. At
Utopia, they setting out to transform the entire industry. To create new revenue streams,
consolidate the data and declutter the admin - unlocking the industry’s full potential by
unifying it all in one truly holistic space.
LiskCompany/ InstituteLiskn.d., blockchainn.a.Develop and publish blockchain applications with your own sidechains on the open-source Lisk Platform. Promotion of new technology developments and applications, in particular promotion and maintenance of new open decentralized software architectures. In the
foreground - but not exclusively - is the promotion and development of the so-called Lisk protocol and the corresponding technology as well as the promotion and support of applications using the Lisk protocol
StatusCompany/ InstituteStatusn.d., ethereum, mobilen.a.Status is an interface to access Ethereum, built for Android and iOS. Enjoy encrypted messaging, a cryptocurrency wallet, and seamless access to DApps.
TezosCompany/ InstituteTezosn.d., blockchain, governancen.a.Tezos is a new decentralized blockchain that governs itself by establishing a true digital commonwealth. It facilitates formal verification, a technique which mathematically proves the correctness of the code governing transactions and boosts the security of the most sensitive or financially weighted smart contracts.
WavesCompany/ InstituteWavesn.d., blockchainn.a.They create the economics of free, perfect and instant. The Waves Platform is a global public blockchain platform, founded in 2016. Waves Platform’s mission is to reinvent the DNA of entrepreneurship around the world by providing a shared infrastructure, offering easy-touse, highly functional tools to make blockchain available to every person or organisation that can benefit from it.
SantimentCompany/ InstituteSantimentn.d., dataanalytics, cryptocurrencyn.a.Santiment is a one-stop source for cryptocurrency data sets, real-time market signals
and fresh industry insights. We are dedicated to promoting clarity, transparency and trust
across blockchain economies in an effort to demystify crypto and create a better future
society for all.
Bitcoin SuisseCompany/ InstituteBitcoin Suissen.d., cryptocurrency, trading, custodyn.a.They have a long-term and ambitious vision for Bitcoin Suisse AG. To realize these goals they are building a team of highly talented people who share their vision and who are passionate about creating world-changing financial products and services.
BityCompany/ InstituteBityn.d., cryptocurrency, digital assetsn.a.The Swiss gateway to convert money into cryptocurrencies and digital assets. Buy - sell bitcoins and ethers. Introducing Bity Kiosks, the easiest way to acquire or sell bitcoins with cash. Only a phone number is required. Bitcoin ATMs are currently located in Geneva, Lausanne, Montreux, Neuchâtel, Zürich Hauptbahnhof and Zürich Hardbrücke.
CoreledgerCompany/ InstituteCoreledgern.d., blockchainn.a.The CoreLedger infrastructure creates a simple and secure platform from which to use blockchain technology. It allows users to digitize goods and services without programming effort. Thanks to blockchain technology, these assets can be securely and irrevocably transferred with immutable and unfalsifiable proof of ownership. Transactions using digitized assets decrease costs and integrate seamlessly with existing goods and services
Crypto FinanceCompany/ InstituteCrypto Financen.d., funds, custody, tradingn.a.Crypto Finance AG is a financial technology company founded in June 2017. The company provides blockchain-related services through its three divisions Asset Management, Brokerage and Storage. The aim of Crypto Finance AG is to facilitate the implementation
of blockchain technology in the global economy through a range of high quality financial services.
LykkeCompany/ InstituteLykken.d., payment, bankingn.a.Lykke takes advantage of breakthroughs in crypto-technology to build a global Internet exchange with immediate settlement for all asset classes and types of financial instruments.

The banking architecture is outdated and needs to be replaced. They propose an Internet exchange that uses blockchain to trade all types of financial instruments. The benefits are immediate settlement, low transaction fees, the absence of a single point of failure, and
strategic independence. Immediate settlement and highly competitive pricing will lead to rapid volume growth and establish the exchange as the Internet marketplace.
SEBA CryptoCompany/ InstituteSEBA Crypton.d., banking, trading, custodyn.a.SEBA’s ambition is to become the world‘s first universal, fully licensed and supervised crypto bank, offering industry leading crypto-asset financial products and services. SEBA’s team is comprised of global leaders and experts in banking, financial markets, FinTech and
Smart ValorCompany/ InstituteSmart Valorn.d., banking, alternative investingsn.a.Smart Valor is building the blockchain-based Valor-Network: a decentralized community-based marketplace for tokenized alternative investments. It enables asset issuers to create and distribute tokenized alternative investment solutions.
Token SuisseCompany/ InstituteToken Suissen.d., cyptocurrency, tokenn.a.As leading European provider for Crypto Asset Investment Solutions, TokenSuisse is at the forefront of financial innovation. Whether Coin Brokerage, Crypto Asset Advisory or Analytics and Consulting Solutions, their inhouse capabilities allow them to help with any
question regarding Blockchain Technologies and Crypto Assets. Most importantly, through differentiation between and critical analysis of emerging blockchain technologies, their team is able to derive the implications for different Crypto Assets and as well as affected
Zulu RepublicCompany/ InstituteZulu Republicn.d., blockchainn.a.The Zulu Republic aims to mitigate the adoption problem, leveraging blockchain technology to create a sustainable cryptotoken ecosystem composed of individuals, merchants, and larger businesses, bolstered by enterprise-level activity and product “exports”—creating a place where people can not only make use of blockchain technology in their daily lives but thrive in the process of doing so.
EidooCompany/ InstituteEidoon.d., tokenn.a.Eidoo, a Ticino based blockchain startup, has officially launched the ICO Engine to allow Crypto companies and startups host and manage their token sales safely and with ease via the Eidoo mobile app.
XapoCompany/ InstituteXapon.d., custodyn.a.Xapo has been described by The Wall Street Journal as the Fort Knox of bitcoin storage. So if you’re looking to secure your bitcoins, then look no further than the Xapo Vault. They have developed a new standard of bitcoin security and protect your assets in the Vault so that you are rest assured that your money is safe and sound.
SecurosysCompany/ InstituteSecurosysn.d., custody, hsmn.a.Technology company dedicated to securing data and communications. We develop, produce, and distribute hardware, software and services that protect and verify data and their transmission.
ConcordiumCompany/ InstituteConcordiumn.d., proof-of-stake, blockchainn.a.When launched in 2020, the Concordium blockchain will be a Level-1, Proof-of-stake, regulatory-compliant, enterprise-grade blockchain with verified identity of users built-in at the protocol level and with application of zero-knowledge proofs. Technological innovations will enhance its performance and allow the blockchain to be fast without compromising security, be scalable, o¦er interoperability and it’s partial synchronicity adjust to the speed of the internet and ensure that Concordium won´t break under any circumstances.
CosmosCompany/ InstituteCosmosn.d., blockchainn.a.Interchain Foundation, a Swiss non-profit, which is responsible for coordinating fundraising and allocating funds to get the network o¦ the ground. The foundation will suggest a distribution of Atoms according to the results of the fundraiser. Users will ultimately decide the distribution for themselves when they run the software. The Interchain Foundation will suggest that 5% of the Atoms go to its initial donors, 10% go to the Interchain Foundation, 10% go to the company developing most of the software, and the remaining 75% to be distributed according to the results of the private and public fundraisers.
CasperLabsCompany/ InstituteCasperLabsn.d., smart contractn.a.Casper Labs presents the design for a new Turing-complete smart contract platform, backed by a proof-of-stake, PoS consensus algorithm, and WebAssembly, wasm. The intent is for this design to be implemented as a new permissionless, decentralized, public blockchain. The consensus protocol is built on correct-by-construction, CBC Casper work.
PolkadotCompany/ InstitutePolkadotn.d., multi-chain, governance, blockchainn.a.Polkadot empowers blockchain networks to work together under the protection of shared security.
Cysec SystemsCompany/ InstituteCysec Systemsn.d., custody, hsmn.a.ARCATrust aims at providing valuable hardware and software platform solution for storing and managing dynamically digital assets.
Algo TraderCompany/ InstituteAlgo Tradern.d., dataanalyticsn.a.Available on-premise or in the cloud, AlgoTrader is an institutional-grade quantitative trading and trade execution solution for conducting quantitative research, trading strategy development, strategy back-testing and automated trading for both traditional finance and crypto finance.
BittrexCompany/ InstituteBittrexn.d., exchangen.a.Bittrex Global provides a proven and secure platform for its customers to access the opportunities of digital asset trading. Built on Bittrex’s
cutting-edge technology, Bittrex Global provides an institutional grade experience for professional and novice customers alike.
Taurus GroupCompany/ InstituteTaurus Groupn.d., digital assets, dlt, exchangen.a.Taurus is a Swiss-based company specialized in digital assets and distributed ledger technology. Taurus aims at building one of the first regulated digital asset exchanges for securities.
CryptixCompany/ InstituteCryptixn.d., paymentn.a.The Cryptix Group is a full-service provider that realises digital payment and exchange solutions that make life simpler for consumers and businesses.
CustoDigitCompany/ InstituteCustoDigitn.d., custodyn.a.CustoDigit’s asset platform is a one-stop-shop developed entirely for regulated financial services institutions
FlovtecCompany/ InstituteFlovtecn.d., digital assetsn.a.flovtec is an award-winning leader in the field of liquidity provision for digital assets, d@ssets. As a key player in the Blockchain ecosystem flovtec fosters price stability and reduces transaction costs, for the benefit of all market participants.
MetacoCompany/ InstituteMetacon.d., custodyn.a.Metaco is a Swiss-based company with international presence. It brings together industry experts and most talented engineers to fulfill the requirements of financial corporations
LibraCompany/ InstituteLibran.d., paymentn.a.Libra is built on a secure, scalable, and reliable blockchain and is designed to help bring people everywhere equal access to financial services. Libra is backed by a reserve of assets so that its value stays stable.
CryptoHackersMagazine/ BlogCryptoHackersn.d. superheroes interviews. Fascinating facts, teams insides and success stories.
CoinTelegraphMagazine/ BlogCointelegraphn.d. leading publication offering latest news, analysis, expert opinions, community commentaries. Founded in 2013.
CryptoCoins NewsMagazine/ By Hawkfish ASn.d. news and analysis. This huge blog posts very frequently. Approx. 7M readers monthly.
Bitcoin MagazineMagazine/ BlogBitcoin Magazinen.d. Magazine is the oldest and most established source of news, information and expert commentaries. Sometimes posts deep and very interesting articles.
99 BitcoinsMagazine/ Blog99 Bitcoinsn.d. Bitcoins is the largest information source for non technical newbies.
Coin SpeakerMagazine/ BlogCoinspeakern.d. in 2014, CoinSpeaker is one of the most influentional news source.
The Memory PoolMagazine/ BlogNakamoto Instituten.d. Nakamoto Institute blog.
Tim Swanson BlogMagazine/ BlogSwanson, T.n.d. of director of market research at R3.
Oleg Andreev BlogMagazine/ BlogAndreev, O-n.d. of hardcore developer, product architect at
CoinGapeMagazine/ BlogCoinGapen.d. blockchain, cryptocurrency, ICO news, updates, guides and analysis.
Freedom to TinkerMagazine/ BlogFreedom to Tinkern.d. hosted tech blog: researches and experts commentaries.
Gavin Andersesn BlogMagazine/ BlogAndresen, G.n.d. of Bitcoin developer.
Peter Todd BlogMagazine/ BlogTodd, P.n.d. of Todd, the applied cryptography consultant.
Richard Brown BlogMagazine/ BlogBrown, R.n.d. of Head of Technology at R3CEV.
Laanwj BlogMagazine/ Bloglaanwjn.d. of Bitcoin core developer and reverse engineer.
BitrazziMagazine/ BlogBitrazzin.d., Cryptocurrency And Blockchain News.
BitfallsMagazine/ BlogBitfallsn.d. news, solidity tutorials, and skeptical research. EN and HR languages.
What Bitcoin DidMagazine/ BlogWhat Bitcoin Didn.d. of accidental Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency investor, miner, blogger and podcaster.
CryptoGroundMagazine/ BlogCryptoGroundn.d. latest news related to Bitcoin, Ethereum and other cryptocurrencies.
Vitalik ButerinMagazine/ BlogButerin, V.n.d. creator, cryptocurrency evangelist.
Bitcoin Tech TalkMagazine/ BlogBitcoin Tech Talkn.d. About Bitcoin Development.
Tuur DemeesterMagazine/ BlogDemeester, T.n.d. & investor, editor in chief at Adamant Research.
Vinny LinghamMagazine/ BlogLingham, V.n.d. of
Nicolas DorierMagazine/ BlogDorier, N.n.d. developer of NBitcoin. CTO at Metaco SA.
Nick TomainoMagazine/ BlogTomaino, N.n.d. investor @RunaCapital.
Eric LombrozoMagazine/ BlogLomborzo, E.n.d. & CTO Ciphrex Corp., Bitcoin Core contributor.
Jimmy SongMagazine/ BlogSong, J.n.d. Developer and Entrepreneur.
Linda XieMagazine/ BlogXie, L.n.d. Manager @Coinbase. Advisor @0xProject.
Fred EhrsamMagazine/ BlogEhrsam, F.n.d. co-founder @Coinbase, trader @GoldmanSachs, computer science @DukeU.
Token EconomyMagazine/ BlogMediumn.d. sense of the latest in crypto-land: cryptocurrencies, blockchains, ICOs, dapps & the growing
Crypto MemesCommunity/ Social MediaTelegramn.d. funny pictures.
CryptoCommunity/ Social MediaTelegramn.d. god of all crypto channels.
UpcomingICOsCommunity/ Social MediaTelegramn.d. channel is dedicated to informing people of up and coming ICO's.
CryptoNewsCommunity/ Social MediaTelegramn.d. news megafeed that is posted in real time, even before they hit social media.
Ethereum dappsCommunity/ Social MediaTelegramn.d. & DAPPS news and updates.
Telegram Crypto GroupsCommunity/ Social MediaTelegramn.d. of all of Telegram crypto related groups.
CryptoControlNews AggregatorCryptoControln.d., twitter, reddit aggregates news from many sources, Twitter, Reddit, Google Trends etc and displays it in the Trello style.
CryptoPanicNews AggregatorCryptoPanicn.d., cryptocurrency is news aggregator platform indicating impact on price and market for traders and cryptocurrency enthusiasts.
ETHNewsNews AggregatorETHNewsn.d., ethereum is emerging provider of Ethereum and Blockchain ecosystem news.
Coin SpectatorNews AggregatorCoin Spectatorn.d., cryptocurrency, bitcoin, blockchain the latest cryptocurrency, bitcoin & blockchain news from many news sources.
CoinsCalendarNews AggregatorCoinsCalendarn.d., cryptocurrency, ico displays all upcoming coins events and updates.
CoinDarNews AggregatorCoinDarn.d., cryptocurrency, forks, event first to know about coming cryptocurrency news, updates, hard forks, meetups, coins listing on exchanges and other important events.
BTCnewsNews AggregatorItunesn.d., cryptocurrency, trading cryptocurrency news and charts app for iOS.
CryptoAudioNews AggregatorCryptoAudion.d., tool that creates news summaries from various sources and reads them using a text-to-speech technology.
CryptoFlash.ioNews AggregatorCryptoFlash.ion.d., cryptocurrency 200+ cryptocurrencies news & rumors in real time!
AmuletPlatformNews AggregatorAmuletPlatformn.d., reddit, bitcointalk sentiment analysis of 24M+ posts about crypto from Reddit and Bitcointalk
InTokenWeTrustNews AggregatorInTokenWeTrustn.d., cryptocurrency aggregator platform with all media and blogs about cryptocurrency.
CoinMarketcapWebsite/ ToolsCoinMarketcapn.d. trackers, trading and cool. All coins prices, graphs, market caps. API, widgets, tools. Used by 90M monthly users.
CoincapWebsite/ ToolsCoincapn.d. trackers, trading tracks market data for hundreds of cryptocurrencies in real-time. They also have very useful mobile app.
CryptowatchWebsite/ ToolsCryptowatchn.d. trackers, trading price charts and market data for Bitcoin, Ethereum, and more. Many exchanges, flexible settings and cool API.
BitcoinwisdomWebsite/ ToolsBitcoinwisdomn.d. trackers, trading Bitcoin/Litecoin charts with EMA, MACD and other indicators. Support many exchanges, Bitfinex, Bitstamp, Coinbase, Bittrex, Poloniex etc.
Flippening WatchWebsite/ ToolsFlippening Watchn.d. trackers, trading will Ethereum overtake Bitcoin and become the most important cryptocurrency?
CoindexWebsite/ ToolsItunesn.d. trackers, trading cryptocurrency price tracker for iOS.
WorldCoinIndexWebsite/ ToolsWorldCoinIndexn.d. trackers, trading cryptocurrency price monitoring tool. Lots of altcoins and many fiat currencies.
CryptTraderWebsite/ ToolsCryptTradern.d. trackers, trading trading platform. Charts, news and trollbox. Add widgets to customize the look.
Coin Daily UpdateWebsite/ ToolsCoin Daily Updaten.d. trackers, trading email update with price changes of customizable coins.
CoinderaWebsite/ ToolsCoinderan.d. trackers, trading time cryptocurrency price alerts for 2,000+ coins on 25+ exchanges.
Cryptocurrency CLIWebsite/ Toolschrist0ph3rn.d. trackers, trading portfolio on the command line.
ckandrWebsite/ Toolsckandrn.d. trackers, trading command-line cryptocurrency price ticker specifically for popular Indian cryptocurrency exchanges.
CoinAlyzeWebsite/ ToolsCoinAlyzen.d. trackers, trading real-time charts, price levels, statistics and candlestick patterns detection.
CryptomonWebsite/ ToolsCryptomonn.d. trackers, trading trading indicators and price predictions based on machine intelligence.
MoonHashWebsite/ ToolsMoonHashn.d. trackers, trading portfolio, price monitoring and telegram monitoring Google Chrome Extension
CoincallWebsite/ ToolsCoincalln.d. trackers, trading web-based crypto price and portfolio tracker.
Owl CryptoWebsite/ ToolsOwl Crypton.d. trackers, trading percentage change monitor.
Coin Market ManagerWebsite/ ToolsCoin Market Managern.d. trackers, trading, accurate, Portfolio tracking. Realtime Breakeven and Profit Loss features.
ICOtrackerWebsite/ ToolsICOtrackern.d., trackers, trading informative and trusted tracker.
The ICO digestWebsite/ ToolsThe ICO digestn.d., trackers, trading ICO digest.
TokenDataWebsite/ ToolsTokenDatan.d., trackers, trading ICO stats: ROI, total investments, status and other information.
CoinScheduleWebsite/ ToolsCoinSchedulen.d., trackers, trading Token Sales & ICOs.
ICO BazaarWebsite/ ToolsICO Bazaarn.d.ICO Bazaar - Informative website + ICOs alerts.ENico, trackers, trading website + ICOs alerts.
PicoloresearchWebsite/ ToolsPicoloresearchn.d., trackers, trading research on blockchain startups and ICOs.
Smith + Crown ICO listWebsite/ ToolsSmith + Crown ICO listn.d., trackers, trading list of ongoing and upcoming token sales. Have some research tiers.
ICORatingWebsite/ ToolsICORatingn.d., trackers, trading specializes in evaluating companies with planned ICO.
ICO AlertWebsite/ ToolsICO Alertn.d., trackers, trading for analysis of active and upcoming Initial Coin Offerings.
TokenMarketWebsite/ ToolsTokenMarketn.d., trackers, trading is marketplace for tokens, digital assets and blockchain based investing.
ICOdropsWebsite/ ToolsICOdropsn.d., trackers, trading updating kanban style ICO board.
ICO WhitelistsWebsite/ ToolsICO Whitelistsn.d., trackers, trading on ICOs. Also tracks growth of 200+ Telegram groups for ICOs.
ICOAlarmWebsite/ ToolsICOAlarmn.d., trackers, trading discovery, analysis, and alerts crossplatform mobile application.
ICO ToplistWebsite/ ToolsICO Toplistn.d., trackers, trading, review and rate all ICOs: Past, Active and Upcoming ones.
Local BitcoinsWebsite/ ToolsLocal Bitcoinsn.d., trading and sell bitcoins near you. Trusted by 10M monthly users.
PoloniexWebsite/ ToolsPoloniexn.d., trading Trust: 3.5/5. Tons of altcoins. Poor support.
CoinBaseWebsite/ ToolsCoinBasen.d., trading Trust: 5/5. Pay with fiat.
KrakenWebsite/ ToolsKrakenn.d., trading Trust: 5/5. Founded in 2011.
BittrexWebsite/ ToolsBittrexn.d., trading Trust: 3.8/5. Many altcoins.
CEX.IOWebsite/ ToolsCEX.IOn.d., trading Trust: 5/5. Fiat. Newbie friendly.
BestBitcoinExchangeWebsite/ ToolsBestBitcoinExchangen.d., trading list of 35 popular exchanges. Looks SEOish but does the job well.
ShapeshiftWebsite/ ToolsShapeshiftn.d., trading login, fast, awesome API.
ChangellyWebsite/ ToolsChangellyn.d., trading, nice affiliate program.
CryptoradarWebsite/ ToolsCryptoradarn.d., trading prices and features from > 25 exchanges and brokers.
BinanceWebsite/ ToolsBinancen.d., trading exchange with the lowest fees and it's own token.
KucoinWebsite/ ToolsKucoinn.d., trading Evolving really fast. Has it's own token.
Guarda ExchangeWebsite/ ToolsGuarda Exchangen.d., trading crypto exchange and wallet.
DDEXWebsite/ ToolsDDEXn.d., trading, non-custodial token to token trading powered by 0xproject and Hydro.
ForkDeltaWebsite/ ToolsForkDeltan.d., trading of the earliest and still most popular decentralized exchanges.
ChangeNOWWebsite/ ToolsChangeNOWn.d., trading and fast coin swaps free of custody.
n.exchangeWebsite/ Toolsn.exchangen.d., trading source non-custodial exchange with fiat, a great API and a non-custodial cross chain order book.
Crypto AquariumCommunity/ Social MediaTelegramn.d. community, Telegram, Slack. Curated by Joshua Petty, the Coindex creator. 800+ members.
BitpamCommunity/ Social MediaDiscordn.d., discord Discord community. 300+ members.
Bitcoin Core CommunityCommunity/ Social MediaTelegramn.d., telegram discussion about Bitcoin and Bitcoin Core. 2000+ members.
BlockstackCommunity/ Social MediaSlackn.d., slack Blockstack Slack community. 3000+ members.
CryptoMindedCommunity/ Social MediaCryptoMindedn.d., event, jobs, trades, news things crypto: events, jobs, trades, news. 1000+ Slack members.
IRC #bitcoin channelCommunity/ Social MediaFreenode IRCn.d. good IRC. The channel of 200 silent people.
CryptoHeresyCommunity/ Social MediaCryptoHeresyn.d. Bitcoin forum with focus on cryptocurrency tools and resources.
Bitcoin TalkCommunity/ Social MediaBitcoin Talkn.d. of the Bitcoin community from the start. Made by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2009. ForumCommunity/ Social MediaBitcoin.comn.d. community of 30,000+ users.
BitcoinGardenCommunity/ Social MediaBitcoinGardenn.d. young forum has appeared in Jan 2017.
CryptoCurrencyTalkCommunity/ Social MediaCRYPTOCURRENCYTALK.COMn.d. in 2013, very active forum. Modern engine.
Token DailyCommunity/ Social MediaToken Dailyn.d. news, launches, white papers and Q&A with experts 📈
StadivmCommunity/ Social MediaEmerging Technologyn.d. cryptocurrency forum with a potential.
CryptocompareCommunity/ Social MediaCrypto Coin Comparison Ltd.n.d., trading, cryptocurrency, comparison is interactive platform where you can discuss the latest crypto trends and monitor all markets streaming in real time. Also includes perfect altfoilio app.
Trading ViewCommunity/ Social MediaDLavrovn.d., trading, cryptocurrency, pro traders and learn from their analyzes., Mr. Lavrov is great specialist.
Bitcoin on StackExchangeCommunity/ Social MediaStackexchangen.d., stackexchange and answer site for Bitcoin crypto-currency enthusiasts.
/r/Bitcoin/Community/ Social MediaRedditn.d., reddit Bitcoin news on Reddit. 300,000+ readers.
SteemitCommunity/ Social MediaSteemitn.d., steemit Reddit running on a blockchain. Post to earn $. Spend $ to promote yourself.
Quality CryptoCommunity/ Social MediaTwittern.d., twitter of >50 prominent, high signal-to-noise-ratio accounts.
CoinalityWebsite/ ToolsCoinalityn.d. is free service connecting crypto employers and job seekers.
CryptogrindWebsite/ ToolsCryptogrindn.d. freelance platform.
Blockchain Dev JobsWebsite/ ToolsBlockchain Dev Jobsn.d. list of jobs from around the web for blockchain engineers.
EthlanceWebsite/ ToolsEthlancen.d. or work for ETH.
/r/Jobs4Bitcoins/Website/ ToolsRedditn.d. on Reddit to offer your talents and skills in exchange for the fastest growing currency in the world.
Crypto.jobsWebsite/ ToolsCrypto.jobsn.d. categorized jobs list. Owner does a lot to promote it.
BeincryptoWebsite/ ToolsBeincrypton.d. all the crypto jobs from major job boards.
Jobs by BlockRepublicWebsite/ ToolsJobs by BlockRepublicn.d. filters, locations & categories.
Crypto Jobs ListWebsite/ ToolsCrypto Jobs Listn.d. jobs from top verified blockchain companies.
Bitcoin CoreWebsite/ ToolsBitcoin Coren.d., custody, bitcoin Core is MIT licensed open source Bitcoin wallet. It runs own full node so 145GG of free disk space is required. OSX/Linux/Windows/Ubuntu.
Blockchain.infoWebsite/ ToolsBlockchain.infon.d., custody,’s most popular digital wallet. Mobile apps included.
ElectrumWebsite/ ToolsElectrumn.d., custody, Bitcoin client. Opensource, MIT, has 100+ contributors.
ExodusWebsite/ ToolsExodusn.d., custody, is the first desktop multi-asset wallet with ShapeShift built in.
MyEtherWalletWebsite/ ToolsMyEtherWalletn.d., custody, webapp to access Ethereum. Old and reliable. ERC20 support. Loved by phishers!
CoinomiWebsite/ ToolsCoinomin.d., custody, many altcoins, fast and has perfect UI, closed source now.
JaxxWebsite/ ToolsJaxxn.d., custody,, Jaxx supports many of the leading cryptocurrency platforms. Crossplatform.
Ledger HardwareWebsite/ ToolsLedger Hardwaren.d., custody, hardware wallet. Supports BTC/ETH/ETC/DASH/DOGE and many more coins and ERC20 tokens.
Trezor HardwareWebsite/ ToolsTrezor Hardwaren.d., custody, first & most secure hardware wallet. Supports BTC/ETH/ETC/DASH/ and many more coins and ERC20 tokens.
CoinBaseWebsite/ ToolsCoinBasen.d., custody, Bitcoin for $, NFC payments, requested payments.
MyCeliumWebsite/ ToolsMyCeliumn.d., custody, wallet, easy to set miners fee, rich transaction details.
SamouraiWebsite/ ToolsSamourain.d., custody, Bitcoin wallet for Android.
WalletListWebsite/ ToolsWalletListn.d., custody, your public cryptocurrency addresses.
WalletGenerator.netWebsite/ ToolsWalletGenerator.netn.d., custody, JavaScript client-side wallet generator for 100+ coins.
BlockfolioWebsite/ ToolsBlockfolion.d., cryptocurrency management, with easy to use tools to keep track of all your cryptocurrency investments. Nice widgets. Simple. Android/iOS.
ACryptoWebsite/ ToolsACrypton.d., cryptocurrency bitcoin and altcoins prices, custom alarms, detailed charts. Flexible, many settings, informative. Available for iOS & Android.
AltpocketWebsite/ ToolsAltpocketn.d., cryptocurrency only tool you need for showcasing, tracking and sharing your cryptocurrency investments.
CoinfyiWebsite/ ToolsCoinfyin.d., cryptocurrency your performance, news & market signals related to your cryptocurrency investments. Anonymous. Simple. Free.
f0lioWebsite/ Toolsf0lion.d., cryptocurrency cryptocurrency portfolio management for mobile devices.
BitWorthWebsite/ ToolsBitWorthn.d., cryptocurrency Net Worth Tracker for iOS.
CoinDexWebsite/ ToolsCoinDexn.d., cryptocurrency app that lets you stay up to date with the cryptocurrency markets you want to watch.
DeltaWebsite/ ToolsDeltan.d., cryptocurrency cryptocurrency portfolio tracker tool for iOS & Android.
Crypto CentralWebsite/ ToolsCrypto Centraln.d., cryptocurrency & cryptocurrency portfolio tracker for iOS/Android.
CryptagonWebsite/ ToolsCryptagonn.d., cryptocurrency app to track portfolio. Automatic imports from exchanges.
CryptonomyWebsite/ ToolsCryptonomyn.d., cryptocurrency tracking, social, forum, chat, ico listings, news aggregator, crypto academy. Android/iOS.
wallmineWebsite/ Toolswallminen.d., cryptocurrency both cryptocurrencies and stocks; screeners, heatmaps, news, push notifications.
CoinTrackerWebsite/ ToolsCoinTrackern.d., cryptocurrency asset tracker that automatically pulls all balances and transactions from exchanges and cryptocurrency wallets.
Coin BeatWebsite/ ToolsCoin Beatn.d., cryptocurrency tracker for managing over 1300 crypto currencies. Get instant push notification on price activity. iOS
QR Code GeneratorWebsite/ ToolsQR Code Generatorn.d., adress, bitcoin, litecoin, dogecoin, qrcode this free tool you can instantly generate QR code for your Bitcoin/Litecoin/Ethereum/Dogecoin address.
Block ExplorerWebsite/ ToolsBlock Explorern.d., bitcoin the Bitcoin blockchain blocks online. Includes fees and miners information.
EtherScanWebsite/ ToolsEtherScann.d., ethereum Explorer and Analytics Platform for Ethereum.
ETH Gas StationWebsite/ ToolsETH Gas Stationn.d., gas price, gas oriented metrics for the Ethereum Gas Market.
MetamaskWebsite/ ToolsMetamaskn.d., dApps, browserextension Ethereum dApps right in your browser without running full node.
ATM MapWebsite/ ToolsATM Mapn.d., atm, map Bitcoin ATM’s in your country.
StatoshiWebsite/ ToolsStatoshin.d., node, statistics Bitcoin node stats. Made by Jameson Lopp.
RSIhunterWebsite/ ToolsRSIhuntern.d., analysis, investing "oversold" and "overbought" cryptocurrencies.
CryptoFinanceWebsite/ ToolsCryptoFinancen.d. sheets, cryptocurrency, price Sheets add-on to get cryptocurrencies rate in spreadsheets.
Vanitygen PlusWebsite/ ToolsVanitygen Plusn.d., cryptocurrency custom key addresses for 90+ coins.
CoinPop.meWebsite/, donation shareable page for all your cryptocurrency donation addresses.
If You Had Bought CryptoWebsite/ ToolsIf You Had Bought Crypton.d., investing rich would you be if you had invested in your favourite Cryptocurrency?
Vaulty.ioWebsite/ ToolsVaulty.ion.d., payment any cryptocurrency for your website, blog, or for general personal use with just one link.
Bitcoin Flip Trading simulatorWebsite/ ToolsBitcoin Flip Trading simulatorn.d., trading simulator realistic and fun crypto trading Simulator for Beginners!
QWalletWebsite/ ToolsQWalletn.d., ethereum & view the value of any Ethereum wallet, create your own token portfolio.
EthplorerWebsite/ ToolsEthplorern.d., blockexplorer explorer and analytics platform for Ethereum.
EtherChainWebsite/ ToolsEtherChainn.d., blockexplorer Blockchain Explorer.
Trivial.coWebsite/ ToolsTrivial.con.d., erc-20, blockexplorer explorer and analytics platform for Ethereum and ERC-20 tokens.
HappyDAppsWebsite/ ToolsHappyDAppsn.d. 3.0 browser compatibility check.
The CryptoverseVideo/ Video ChannelsYouTuben.d. channels, learning cryptocurrency news dose.
World Crypto NetworkVideo/ Video ChannelsYouTuben.d. channels, learning news digests.
Crypt0Video/ Video ChannelsYouTuben.d. channels, learning is one of the most popular crypto bloggers. He creates fascinating interviews.
Ameer RosicVideo/ Video ChannelsYouTuben.d. channels, learning, interviews, podcasts and reviews.
aantonopVideo/ Video ChannelsYouTuben.d. channels, learning, discussions, QA by Andreas, the author of "Mastering Bitcoin".
CoinSummitVideo/ Video ChannelsYouTuben.d. channels, learning records: startups showcases, discussions and presentations.
BitcoinFilmVideo/ Video ChannelsYouTuben.d. channels, learning films about people using Bitcoin.
Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency CourseVideo/ Video ChannelsYouTuben.d. channels, learning and Cryptocurrency Technologies course. 12 videos, each 45-90 mins.
CryptoPortfolioVideo/ Video ChannelsYouTuben.d. channels, learning channel reviewing ICOs and various cryptocurrencies.
CryptoBudVideo/ Video ChannelsYouTuben.d. channels, learning and fundamental analysis on how to invest in cryptocurrencies.
CryptotipsVideo/ Video ChannelsYouTuben.d. channels, learning provides you with insights into projects, ICOs and ecosystem, as well as creating videos for beginners.
EtherCastsVideo/ Video ChannelsYouTuben.d. channels, learning Ethereum news, reviews and interviews channel.
Bitcoin PlaylistVideo/ Video ChannelsYouTuben.d. channels, learning list of 55 Bitcoin talks.
Decentralized TVVideo/ Video ChannelsYouTuben.d. channels, learning, Bitcoin, and Cryptocurrency News, Culture, and Entertainment.
Crypto DailyVideo/ Video ChannelsYouTuben.d. channels, learning news on, mostly daily basis.
Ulterior StatesVideo/ Video ChannelsIamSatoshin.d., entertainment conversations with some thought leaders within the Bitcoin ecosystem. The film took 3 years to complete.
The Bitcoin DocoVideo/ Video ChannelsVimeon.d., entertainment story focusing on the emergence of new world wide currency.
Life Inside Secret Chinese Bitcoin MineVideo/ Video ChannelsYouTuben.d., entertainment story about the miners of the new millenium.
Mastering BitcoinBook/ Book ChapterAntonopoulos, A.n.d., learning for developers. The second edition was published in June 2017.
The Internet of MoneyBook/ Book ChapterAntonopoulos, A.n.d., learning of bitcoin through series of essays spanning the exhilarating maturation of this technology.
EthereumBook/ Book ChapterDiedrich, H.n.d., learning guide to understand blockchains. Mostly focused on Ethereum.
The Age of CryptocurrencyBook/ Book ChapterVigna, P.;Casey, M. J.n.d., learning into the modern financial system and the Bitcoin industry.
Programming Cryptocurrencies and BlockchainsBook/ Book ChapterYuki & Moto Pressn.d., learning to build your own blockchains and peer-to-peer central bank node from scratch.
Coursera CourseWebsite/ ToolsCourseran.d., learning, education what is special about Bitcoin and how it works at technical level. Created by Princeton University.
Udemy CourseWebsite/ ToolsUdemyn.d., learning, education definitive guide to understand what the bitcoin is and why we should care about them.
Khan's Academy CourseWebsite/ ToolsKhan Academyn.d., learning, education very basics of how blockchain, Bitcoin and encryption works.
Pluralsight CourseWebsite/ ToolsPluralsightn.d., learning, education to Bitcoin and decentralized technology for beginners.
University of Nicosia MOOCWebsite/ ToolsUniversity of Nicosian.d., learning, education of Nicosia´s free MOOC, Massive Open Online Course DFIN-511: Introduction to Digital Currencies.
CoinPride NewsletterWebsite/ ToolsCoinPriden.d., education most important crypto news and events. One handcrafted email per week.
Bitcoin WikiWebsite/ ToolsBitcoin Wikin.d., education, bitcoin specifications of the protocol as well as more basic information about how to buy, sell or use bitcoins.
Blockchain DemoWebsite/ ToolsBlockchainDemo.ion.d., education, blockchain, demo interactive demo will guide you through each component of blockchain step-by-step.
MyCryptoGuideWebsite/ ToolsMyCryptoGuiden.d., education, blockchain guide is meant to serve as both easy-to-understand introduction to the world of cryptocurrencies.
Bad BitcoinWebsite/ ToolsBad Bitcoinn.d., education, blockchain of known scams, HYIPs and Ponzi schemes.
EthListWebsite/ ToolsEthListn.d., education, ethereum Crowdsourced Ethereum Reading List.
Satoshi Nakamoto WhitePaperWebsite/ ToolsSatoshi Nakamoto WhitePapern.d., education, blockchain fundamentals described by the creator.
Bitcoin Developer DocsWebsite/ ToolsBitcoin Developer Docsn.d., education, blockchain information about the Bitcoin protocol and related specifications.
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Coin DemoWebsite/ ToolsCoin Demon.d., education, cryptocurrency, demo demonstration of how bitcoin transactions work.
Rhymes With FiatWebsite/ ToolsRhymes With Fiatn.d., education, blockchain webcomic, with educational notes.
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CoinMarketCapDevelopment ToolsCoinMarketCapn.d., development JSON API covering 1000+ coins. Limit: 1 request per 6 sec.
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EmbarkDevelopment ToolsEmbarkn.d., ethereum, ipfs for serverless Decentralized Applications using Ethereum, IPFS and other platforms. JS.
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PortisDevelopment ToolsPortisn.d. SDK that lets people run your Ethereum DApp in the browser, using the same account on all their
EpicenterPodcast/ Audio ChannelEpicentern.d., learning, education Podcast at the Forefront of the Decentralized Technology Revolution.
Bitcoin KnowledgePodcast/ Audio ChannelBitcoin Knowledgen.d., learning, education about blockchain and fintech.
BlockChannelPodcast/ Audio ChannelBlockChanneln.d., learning, education to educating the world on the power of blockchain based technologies like Bitcoin, Ethereum, and ZCash.
Off The ChainPodcast/ Audio ChannelOff The Chainn.d., learning, education Anthony “Pomp” Pompliano talks to some of the most respected names in crypto and Wall Street to find out how intelligent investors from the new and old financial system are thinking about digital assets.
Unchained: Your No-Hype Resource for All Things CryptoPodcast/ Audio ChannelUnchained: Your No-Hype Resource for All Things Crypton.d.https://unchainedpodcast.comENpodcast, learning, education weekly, hour-long podcast with host Laura Shin dives deep into the people building the decentralized internet, the details of this technology that could underpin our future, and some of the thorniest topics in crypto, such as regulation, security and privacy.
What Grinds My GearsPodcast/ Audio ChannelWhat Grinds My Gearsn.d., learning, education Meltem Demirors and Jill Carlson, What Grinds My Gears is a podcast about the bizarre and buzzworthy happenings in the world of cryptocurrency. Each week, they delve into one key theme in crypto, and examine this theme through a broader financial, political, and cultural lens
What Bitcoin DidPodcast/ Audio ChannelWhat Bitcoin Didn.d., learning, education this podcast you will hear host Peter McCormack speak with crypto traders, miners, venture capitalist, investors, technical developers, CEOs, journalist and other people driving forward the growth of Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies.
Untold Stories with Charlie ShremPodcast/ Audio ChannelUntold Stories with Charlie Shremn.d., learning, education Charlie Shrem dives deep into the lives and personal histories of some of crypto’s most influential leaders.
Tales From The CryptPodcast/ Audio ChannelTales From The Cryptn.d., learning, education from the Crypt is a podcast hosted by Marty Bent about Bitcoin. Join Marty, Editor in Chief of "the best newsletter in crypto", as he sits down to discuss Bitcoin with interesting people.
The Token Daily with Soona AmhazPodcast/ Audio ChannelThe Token Daily with Soona Amhazn.d., learning, education soona amhaz sits down with the movers and shakers of the crypto industry to discuss the big ideas they spend their days thinking about. Soona and her guests examine everything from industry trends, to what books they’re reading, to human psychology and investing.
The FlippeningPodcast/ Audio ChannelThe Flippeningn.d., learning, education is for cryptocurrency investors. Each week host Clay Collins discusses the cryptocurrency economy, new investment strategies for maximizing returns, and stories from the front lines of financial disruption.
The Chain Reaction PodcastPodcast/ Audio ChannelThe Chain Reaction Podcastn.d.https://fiftyonepercent.podbean.comENpodcast, learning, education Tom Shaughnessy of Delphi Digital converses with the top names in crypto and blockchain.
Unconfirmed: Insights and Analysis From the Top Minds in CryptoPodcast/ Audio ChannelUnconfirmed: Insights and Analysis From the Top Minds in Crypton.d., learning, education weekly crypto podcast reveals how the marquee names in crypto are reacting to the week’s top headlines. With host Laura Shin, the guests also discuss what they’re thinking about these days and reveal what they believe is on the horizon in crypto
The Unhashed PodcastPodcast/ Audio ChannelThe Unhashed Podcastn.d., learning, education breaks down the latest in Bitcoin news and developments and puts them into terms everyone can understand. Expect to be both entertained and educated about cryptocurrencies and blockchain.
The ScoopPodcast/ Audio ChannelThe Scoopn.d., learning, education Block’s team, led by Frank Chaparro, draw out the freshest and deepest insights about digital assets from traditional Wall Street, crypto native, Fortune 500 and many other crypto ecosystem leaders.
Base LayerPodcast/ Audio ChannelBase Layern.d.https://acrabaselayer.podbean.comENpodcast, learning, education Layer with host David Nage will be providing insights from founders and investors in the base layer of cryptoassets.
Blockchain Innovation: Interviewing The Brightest Minds In BlockchainPodcast/ Audio ChannelBlockchain Innovation: Interviewing The Brightest Minds In Blockchainn.d., learning, education Innovation is where host Frederick Munawa interviews the brightest minds in Blockchain and cryptocurrency — entrepreneurs, executives, and top academics — to discuss present and future applications of Blockchain Technology.
Blockchain InsiderPodcast/ Audio ChannelBlockchain Insidern.d., learning, education Insider, hosted by Simon Taylor and Colin Platt is a dedicated podcast specializing in Bitcoin, Blockchain and distributed ledger technology, DLT. Simon and Colin break down the week’s news with expertise and enthusiasm for the blockchain and digital currency sector.
Let’s Talk CryptoPodcast/ Audio ChannelLet’s Talk Crypton.d.https://schoolofcrypto.comENpodcast, learning, education’s Talk Crypto with Barry Moore and Tom Galeski breaks it all down in easy to understand terms and helps you “learn and earn” in the age of cryptocurrencies.
Blockchain 2025Podcast/ Audio ChannelBlockchain 2025n.d., learning, education is a technology that will disrupt nearly every industry. Host Matt Aaron and Blake Moore explore one industry in every episode.
IBM Blockchain PulsePodcast/ Audio ChannelIBM Blockchain Pulsen.d., learning, education and blockchain-evangelist Matt Hooper engages with the planet’s most dynamic blockchain thought-leaders, explorers and innovators to discover the countless new ways blockchain is leaping from theory to reality: From entertainment to identity, from payments to secure supply-chain transparency.
Messari’s Unqualified OpinionsPodcast/ Audio ChannelMessari’s Unqualified Opinionsn.d., learning, education Opinions is a podcast hosted by Messari’s CEO Ryan Selkis featuring candid, fast-paced interviews with crypto’s top builders and investors.
The Bitcoin Podcast NetworkPodcast/ Audio ChannelThe Bitcoin Podcast Networkn.d., learning, education of the ‘originals’ and hands-down one of the best sources of information on the crypto market available online today.
Crypto Street PodcastPodcast/ Audio ChannelCrypto Street Podcastn.d.https://cryptostreetpod.podbean.comENpodcast, learning, education Crypto Street Podcast is a cryptocurrency podcast hosted by the three Twitter influencers @K1llerWh4le, @13Prince31 and @CryptoDale. With a lot of humor, they address current market trends mixed with opinion-based discussions on the crypto-ecosystem.
Ledger CastPodcast/ Audio ChannelLedger Castn.d., learning, education Cast covers the cryptocurrency industry, including technical and trading analysis, fundamental analysis, and anything else crypto and blockchain related. The podcast is initiated by Ledger Status, @ledgerstatus who is known for his in-depth technical analysis of cryptoassets.
CoinWarzDevelopment ToolsCoinWarzn.d., profitability profitability calculators. Help choosing perfect coin to mine.
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CryptoKittiesWebsite/ ToolsCryptoKittiesn.d., cryptokitties, breed and trade rare kitties in one of the world's first blockchain games.
Crypto Investment Research - CoinDeskWebsite/ ToolsCoinDeskn.d., investing, trading, research Research’s Introduction to Crypto Investment is a series of research papers about the facts and ideas that are drawing institutional investors into crypto. Those new to crypto will find needed resources and a map of future obstacles. Those already active in crypto will find a guide to the path ahead for colleagues and clients.
CoinMarketCal: Cryptocurrency calendar
Website/ ToolsCoinMarketCaln.d., investing, trading, research, event is the leading economic calendar for reliable cryptocurrency news. It covers all events that help crypto traders make better decisions.
Block'tivity: The real value of BlockchainsWebsite/ ToolsBlock'tivity: The real value of Blockchainsn.d., analysis, activity way to consider a blockchain project is through its market cap. Another way, closer to the real value, is observing the activity on the blockchain. Lots of FUD and HYPE are responsible for "misplaced" capital in the cryptocurrency space. Here, we are observing which project is actually being used by people, which is in our opinion, the best predictive indicator of value you can have.
athcoinindexWebsite/ Toolsathcoinindexn.d., cryptocurrency 50 Cryptocurrencies By Market Capitalization
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coinapiWebsite/ Toolscoinapin.d., api, cryptocurrency cryptocurrency exchanges integrated under a single API. CoinAPI is a platform which provides fast, reliable and unified data APIs to cryptocurrency markets.
cryptomisoWebsite/ Toolscryptomison.d., analysis, github commit history of 249 cryptocurrencies based on most popular repo, last updated: 29.2.2020, 17:30:02
coinlikerWebsite/ Toolscoinlikern.d., marketcap Cryptocurrency Market Capitalizations Browse our extensive collection of cryptocurrencies and discover new coins and market information about those coins. The coins listed below are our most popular coins at the moment.
cryptomindedWebsite/ Toolscryptomindedn.d., education, learning, blockchain curated directory of the best cryptocurrency resources.
blockmodoWebsite/ Toolsblockmodon.d., news, social media, analysis provides a collection of the latest marketcapitalizations, news, top gainers, top loosers, social media posts and community information.
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hive.oneWebsite/ Toolshive.onen.d.https://hive.oneENbitcoin, ethereum, cryptocurrency, twitter, people, analysis are a group of crypto minded researchers, engineers, designers and just fans of this space. We set out to build an algorithm which would provide a relevant context score to a users social channel. With this we first started with Twitter to get our baseline scoring mechanisms in place. We call algorithm Peoplerank. It works similar to how Google's Pagerank works, but instead of applying the relevance score to a webpage our algorithm applies that score to the conversations or messages being sent over a channel. Originally, Hive.One was called which we decided to change the name, for more information you can read why here.
tennagraphWebsite/ Toolstennagraphn.d., voting, governance is an app for creating and collecting network sentiment for better Ethereum governance.
ethstatsWebsite/ Toolsethstatsn.d., statistics provides detailed statistics on the ethereum network including node, transaction, gas, mining, hashrate, difficulty data and much more.
icobenchWebsite/ Toolsicobenchn.d., analysis, rating is an ICO rating platform supported by investors and financial experts.
fork.lolWebsite/ Toolsfork.loln.d., statistics provides detailed statistics on the ethereum network including node, transaction, mining, hashrate, difficulty data and much more.
lightningnetworkstoresWebsite/ Toolslightningnetworkstoresn.d. network, wallet goal of this website is to track the adoption of the lightning network by merchants and to inform bitcoin users where they can spend their bitcoin through lightning. It tries to be most complete repository of lightning merchants, while also providing a comprehensive list of lightning mobile wallets.
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nomicsWebsite/ Toolsnomicsn.d., analysis, data, api’re an API-first cryptoasset data company delivering professional-grade market data APIs to institutional crypto investors and exchanges. We offer products and services that allow funds, fintech apps, and exchanges to access clean, normalized and gapless primary source trade and order book data.
ethresear.chWebsite/ Toolsethresear.chn.d.https://ethresear.chENethereum, development, forum, second-layer, sharding, state-channels is a semi-public forum for participating in Ethereum’s research efforts, including but not limited to: Casper, Sharding, EVM improvements, Low-level protocol improvements, Economics, protocol economics, Resource pricing economics, Plasma, State-channels,Other second-level features
icostatsWebsite/ Toolsicostatsn.d., analysis, rating is an ICO performance tracker and rating provider
howmanyconfsWebsite/ ToolsChilds, L.n.d., finality, scaliability,cryptocurrency that shows how many confirmations are equivalent* to 6 Bitcoin confirmations for different cryptocurrencies Tools, 51% attack, security 51% Attack Cost - This is a collection of coins and the theoretical cost of a 51% attack on each network.
Anders Blockchain DemoWebsite/ ToolsBrownworth, A.n.d., learning, education, demo is a very basic visual introduction to the concepts behind a blockchain. We introduce the idea of an immutable ledger using an interactive web demo
Top people in Blockchain and CryptoWebsite/ ToolsTop people in Blockchain and Crypton.d., blockchain Cointelegraph Top 100 -Welcome to the first-ever Cointelegraph Top 100. We’re rolling into the new decade by sharing our list of the most important and influential people in the cryptocurrency and blockchain world!
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MessarioWebsite/ ToolsMessarin.d.https://messari.ioENcryptocurrency, news, social media, analysis Messari methodology is a comprehensive set of methods to compute metrics and to classify assets. These metrics and classifications are available throughout our industry-leading data and research platform. For a nascent industry like crypto to flourish, a transparent and detailed methodology for metrics and classifications is crucial. It serves two primary purposes.First, it provides a common standard for crypto investors and other professionals to communicate their ideas. The crypto community is marked by an ethos of open collaboration. However, the lack of standard language hinders communication and cooperation. For instance, when someone says “Bitcoin accounts for 70% of the total crypto market capitalization”, which “market capitalization” are they referring to? The one based on the total outstanding supply or the currently liquid supply? The actual number can be wildly different depending on the definition of what “supply” is. Second, it helps our users make more informed decisions by being aware of how exactly a derived metric is computed and avoiding potential data pitfalls. For instance, it is well known that many exchanges conduct wash trading practices in order to inflate trading volume. We created a metric called “Real 10 volume” which filters out these exchanges. We describe to our users how the “Real 10” exchanges are picked and how exactly their volume is used to compute an aggregate price.
Bitcoin is a technological tour de force.QuotesBill Gates2019, quotes, bill gates, microsoft is a technological tour de force.
Bitcoin is exciting because it shows how cheap it can be. Bi[...]QuotesBill Gates2019, quotes, transaction cost is exciting because it shows how cheap it can be. Bitcoin is better than currency in that you don’t have to be physically in the same place and, of course, for large transactions, currency can get pretty inconvenient.
Bitcoin will do to banks what email did to the postal indust[...]QuotesRick Falkvinge2019, quotes, disruption will do to banks what email did to the postal industry.
Whereas most technologies tend to automate workers on the pe[...]QuotesVitalik Buterin2019, quotes, automation most technologies tend to automate workers on the periphery doing menial tasks, blockchains automate away the center. Instead of putting the taxi driver out of a job, blockchain puts Uber out of a job and lets the taxi drivers work with the customer directly.
Bitcoin is a remarkable cryptographic achievement and the ab[...]QuotesEric Schmidt2019, quotes, cryptography is a remarkable cryptographic achievement and the ability to create something which is not duplicable in the digital world has enormous value… incredibly useful for many computer applications.
Bitcoin is the beginning of something great: a currency with[...]QuotesPeter Thiel2019, quotes, cryptocurrency, government is the beginning of something great: a currency without a government, something necessary and imperative. But I am not familiar with the specific product to assert whether it is the best potential setup. And we need a long time to establish confidence.
A lot of people automatically dismiss e-currency as a lost c[...]QuotesSatoshi Nakamoto2019, quotes, cryptocurrency lot of people automatically dismiss e-currency as a lost cause because of all the companies that failed since the 1990s. I hope it’s obvious it was only the centrally controlled nature of those systems that doomed them. I think this is the first time we’re trying a decentralized, non-trust-based system.
When I first heard about Bitcoin, I thought it was impossibl[...]QuotesJeff Garzik2019, quotes, cryptocurrency I first heard about Bitcoin, I thought it was impossible. How can you have a purely digital currency? Can’t I just copy your hard drive and have your bitcoins? I didn’t understand how that could be done, and then I looked into it and it was brilliant.
PayPal had these goals of creating a new currency. We failed[...]QuotesPeter Thiel2019, quotes, paypal, cryptocurrency had these goals of creating a new currency. We failed at that, and we just created a new payment system. I think Bitcoin has succeeded on the level of a new currency, but the payment system is somewhat lacking. It’s very hard to use, and that’s the big challenge on the Bitcoin side.
Cryptocurrency is such a powerful concept that it can almost[...]QuotesCharles Lee2019, quotes, cryptocurrency is such a powerful concept that it can almost overturn governments.
Economists and journalists often get caught up in this quest[...]QuotesErik Voorhees2019, quotes,value and journalists often get caught up in this question: Why does Bitcoin have value? And the answer is very easy. Because it is useful and scarce.
Gold is a great way to preserve wealth, but it is hard to mo[...]QuotesJim Rickards2019, quotes, gold is a great way to preserve wealth, but it is hard to move around. You do need some kind of alternative and Bitcoin fits the bill. I’m not surprised to see that happening.
Bitcoin is the most important invention in the history of th[...]QuotesRoger Ver2019, quotes, disruption is the most important invention in the history of the world since the Internet.
You can’t stop things like Bitcoin. It will be everywhere an[...]QuotesJohn McAfee2019, quotes, government can’t stop things like Bitcoin. It will be everywhere and the world will have to readjust. World governments will have to readjust.
Every informed person needs to know about Bitcoin because it[...]QuotesLeon Luow2019, quotes, innovation informed person needs to know about Bitcoin because it might be one of the world’s most important developments.
I do think Bitcoin is the first [encrypted money] that has t[...]QuotesPeter Thiel2019, quotes, paypal, disruption do think Bitcoin is the first [encrypted money] that has the potential to do something like change the world.
Virgin Galactic is a bold entrepreneurial technology. It’s d[...]QuotesRichard Branson2019, quotes, cryptocurrency Galactic is a bold entrepreneurial technology. It’s driving a revolution and Bitcoin is doing just the same when it comes to inventing a new currency.
We have elected to put our money and faith in a mathematical[...]QuotesTyler Winklevoss2019, quotes, mathematics have elected to put our money and faith in a mathematical framework that is free of politics and human error.
You could imagine something like a completely automated syst[...]QuotesVitalik Buterin2019, quotes, cryptocurrency could imagine something like a completely automated system for renting bikes that’s just done completely over blockchain crypto-payments. And theoretically just sort of start it up, and it works completely autonomously.
Before I went to prison, there were not really many blockcha[...]QuotesCharlie Shrem2019, quotes I went to prison, there were not really many blockchain products. It was only, bitcoin
I think the whole narrative of blockchain without bitcoin wi[...]QuotesFred Ehrsam2019, quotes, blockchain think the whole narrative of blockchain without bitcoin will amount to very little.
It’s a fraud” and “worse than tulip bulbs..QuotesJamie Dimon2019, quotes, jp morgan, tulib bulb’s a fraud” and “worse than tulip bulbs..
It looks and smells like all the bubbles I have seen through[...]QuotesJim Rogers2019, quotes looks and smells like all the bubbles I have seen throughout history.
So it seems to me it ought to be outlawed. It doesn’t serve [...]QuotesJoseph Stiglitz2019, quotes, joseph stiglitz it seems to me it ought to be outlawed. It doesn’t serve any socially useful function. It’s a bubble that’s going to give a lot of people a lot of exciting times as it rides up and then goes down.
Stay away from it. It’s a mirage, basically. In terms of cry[...]QuotesWarren Buffet2019, quotes, warren buffet away from it. It’s a mirage, basically. In terms of cryptocurrencies, generally, I can say almost with certainty that they will come to a bad ending.
Bitcoin is an attempt to replace fiat currency and evade reg[...]QuotesBen Benarke2019, quotes, cryptocurrency, government is an attempt to replace fiat currency and evade regulation and government intervention. I don’t think that’s going to be a success,
Blockchain as we know it today was invented by an individual or a group of people using the pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto.FactsInvestopedia,, The Economist2019, satoshi serves as the public transaction ledger for the first and best-known cryptocurrency, Bitcoin. Satoshi conceived a peer-verified electronic cash that would allow monetary transactions to be performed directly between two parties without the need of intermediaries such as banks.The blockchain itself is actually a list of records, or blocks, which are connected in series cryptographically. Each block contains transaction data, like date, time, and amount as well as the cryptographically secured unique electronic address of the parties to each transaction. Every block also stores a code called a “hash” that uniquely identifies it. Every user of Bitcoin’s blockchain has a copy of an entire transaction history. The fact of the transaction is public and unalterable due to hashes the link each block in the chain to the previous and next blocks. The nature of the transaction and the parties to it are private.When two people engage in a transaction, every computer belonging to the blockchain network has to verify it by solving a complex mathematical problem. Only once the verification is complete is the transaction block added to the chain. This is one reason blockchain eliminates the need for an intermediary when performing monetary transactions.Serving as the foundation for an electronic currency is just one application of blockchain technology. Blockchains can also store medical records, contracts, or even voting results, all of which are automatically verified by the network.
The first mention of the word blockchain occurred at BitcoinTalk, the world’s largest forum dedicated to Bitcoin.FactsCoinDesk2019, blockchain to early Bitcoin developers, the term block chain was not used initially. Satoshi Nakamoto, the inventor(s of Bitcoin, referred to the technology as a “proof-of-work” chain. BitcoinTalk forum users came up with the word during a discussion about how much time it takes to download Bitcoin’s “blockchain,” referring to the entire history of Bitcoin transactions.
The financial sector currently accounts for more than 60% of blockchain’s worldwide market value.FactsStatista2019, marketvalue technology has spread to other sectors as well: manufacturing, 17.6% of the market share, distribution and services, 14.6%, public sector, 4.2%, and infrastructure, 3.1%. Nearly every industry has adopted blockchain tech to some extent.
By 2018, about 90% of U.S. and European banks and financial institutions had begun exploring the adoption of blockchain technology.FactsLaw Technology Today, BlockTelegraph2019, blockchain, financial services financial sector leads the way in terms of investments in blockchain technology. During 2018, financial institutions spent about $552 million on blockchain-powered projects.
The costs of transactions using blockchain are millions of times cheaper than transaction costs in traditional economy.FactsEtherscan, Reddit2019 cost, blockchain, ethereum example, the transaction fee for transferring 849,999.99939168 Ether, which is equal to $261,833,999.81 is only $0.19.
Blockchain could reduce investment banks’ infrastructure costs by 30%.FactsAccenture Consulting2019, investment banks to a survey of eight banks by Accenture Consulting, the potential savings on a cost base of $30 billion are more than $8 billion.
By the end of 2024, it is expected that the blockchain market will grow to $20 billion in annual revenues.FactsGrand View Research, Transparency Market Research2019, blockchain, marketvalue when it comes to blockchain technology market size, a recent report suggests that it will reach $7.59 billion by 2024. That’s a compound annual growth rate of 37.4%. Such rapid market growth is explained by an increasing demand for this technology across all industries, from financial services, through consumer and industrial goods, all the way to media, telecom, transport, healthcare, and public services.
74% of tech-savvy executive teams said they believe there’s huge business potential in blockchain technology.FactsDeloitte2019, blockchain, survey even higher number, 84% of business leaders responded that this technology is scalable and that it will eventually become mainstream. Survey author Linda Pawczuk argues that Blockchain is “a versatile technology that can record financial transactions, store medical records, or even track the flow of goods, information, and payments through a supply chain.”
23% of companies said they would invest from $5 million to $10 million in blockchain technology during 2019.FactsDeloitte2019, blockchain, survey 20% of 1,000 surveyed companies reported that they will invest up to $1 million, while 16% estimated that their investment would exceed $10 million.
Bitmain, a Chinese company that produces integrated circuit chips for crypto mining, is considered the largest blockchain organization in the world by market valuation.FactsBitcoin Market Journal2019, bitmain, mining was valued at $14 billion in 2018. Other entries on the list of the biggest blockchain companies are the digital currency exchange Coinbase, valued at $8 billion, stock trading organization Robinhood, $5.6 billion, crypto network Ripple, $5 billion, EOS coin creator Block.One, $4 billion, cryptocurrency trade platform Circle, $2.9 billion, and major crypto exchange Binance, over $2 billion.
An increasing number of food companies and retailers are experimenting with blockchain technology.FactsWall Street Journal, Reuters2019, retail, supply chain has partnered with Nestle, Dole, Unilever, and Tyson Foods to implement blockchain in the food industry. Statistics show that blockchain implementation could generate $700 million in increased productivity. In one pilot project, blockchain made it possible to trace individual mangoes back to the farm in 2.2 seconds. Walmart says that without blockchain it would take more than six days to identify the original farm. A European retailer, Carrefour, is the first company on the continent to introduce blockchain for food products. The company believes that the technology will revolutionize its supply chains, helping raise $5 billion in organic food sales by 2022.
The global market value of blockchain in food and agriculture markets is estimated to reach $1.4 billion by 2028.FactsBIS Research2019, statistics to projections of blockchain trends, the early adoption phase, research & development will end in 2022. The regulatory and commercialization phase will last from 2023 to 2025. Beyond 2025, it’s expected that blockchain will become a mainstream technology in these industries.
More than $270 billion in assets have been distributed in Blockchain transactions.FactsMedici, Cryptopolitan,, PwC2019, statistics of June 2019, about 430,000,000 blockchain-based transactions have been made. What’s also interesting is the emergence of fiat money-transfer companies that operate on blockchain, such as San Francisco-based Veem. Following this trend, Western Union has partnered with a Stellar, XLM blockchain platform with a goal of speeding up transactions between different locations around the world
The percentage of companies that have already implemented blockchain technology is largest in consumer products & manufacturing, 29% of companies.FactsStatista2019, statistics sciences industries, including biotech, medical devices and pharma take second place, with 23% of companies already using blockchain.
There are social networks that run on blockchains.FactsSteemit, CoinMarketCap2019, statistics, social media of the best known is Steemit, a blogging network that rewards users for posting or curating content. The network’s base token is called Steem coin. Every time a user uploads articles or posts comments, he or she is rewarded with the network’s native token. At the time of writing, the Steem value is $0.410965, and it’s ranked 69th on CoinMarketCap.
There are more than 39,000,000 blockchain wallet users as of June, Investopedia2019, statistics, wallet blockchain wallet, or e-wallet, is a software program that lets users receive, store, and spend digital currencies. A typical blockchain wallet interface shows the current balance for stored cryptocurrencies and displays the history of transactions. Blockchain wallet users can send a request to other parties for a specific amount of BTC, ETH, XRP, Litecoin, Tether, or other digital currencies. A unique address is generated for each request. Users can send funds to other unique addresses using their e-wallets too. E-wallets can be stored online or offline; the latter method is much safer. When a user initiates a first-ever crypto-transaction, a digital wallet generates the private key, which then generates the public key. Both are represented as strings of alphanumeric characters. The unique address to which the transactions are sent is actually a hashed version of the public key. The private key is known only by the wallet’s owner, and it allows access to cryptocurrency. Users are not able to access and withdraw the funds deposited at their addresses – that is, in their e-wallets – until they provide a unique private key.
Around 15% of IT professionals have invested in cryptocurrency, which makes them the largest group of investors.FactseToro2019, statistics, cryptocurrency, the unemployed, and retirees also constitute a significant portion of crypto investors. More than 80% of cryptocurrency investors are novices; only 7.38% say they had previous experience in investing.
Blockchain investment was up by 280% in the first three quarters of 2018 when compared to the whole 2017.FactsDiar2019, statistics to one report, blockchain and crypto startups raised $3.9 billion through venture capital investments before the beginning of Q4 2018. The average size of blockchain investments has increased by more than $1 million during 2018.
According to blockchain predictions by Brock Pierce, an American entrepreneur with rich experience in digital currencies, the future of blockchain growth will be pushed by dAPPS, STOs, and the gaming industry.FactsForbes2019, statistics, dapps, sto, gaming, co-founder of the EOS cryptocurrency platform, says that significant decentralized apps will hit millions of users in the near future. Another significant aspect of further blockchain growth will be security token offerings, which work in a more regulated manner than ICOs. The former EOS blockchain chief strategy officer predicts the tokenization of fiat money, the debt market, real estate, equities, and even art is just around the corner. The gaming industry will be a major driver of blockchain adoption as well, since gamers were among the earliest crypto adopters.
Chinese manufacturer Lenovo introduced a mobile device that features “Z-space”, a blockchain-based payment system. HTC has also launched its own blockchain-focused phone.FactsAsia Times, CNBC, Statista2019, statistics, smartphone, mobile seems that mobile blockchain is on its way. Statistics show that the number of mobile phone users will hit 5 billion in 2019, which is a huge, attractive market for blockchain innovators.
Key issues that need to be solved before blockchain becomes a mainstream technology are performance speed, interoperability, costs, regulations, and collaboration.FactsCNBC, Deloitte, ICOService2019, statistics, scalability, adoption #1: In numerous blockchain usage scenarios, performance issues must be addressed before widespread application deployment. While traditional systems are able to process thousands of transactions per second, the BTC blockchain can handle up to seven transactions per second. The Ethereum network is able to process 15 per second. Issue #2: The blockchain industry is expanding rapidly, but still there is no standard that will allow different networks to cooperate with each other. Issue #3: Reducing costs are one of the challenges of blockchain. Statistics from Elite Fixtures suggest that it costs more than $26,000 to mine just one bitcoin in South Korea. Issue #4: Existing regulations around the world do not cover some of the main components of blockchain technology, such as smart contracts and international transactions. This uncertainty can slow down investments in technology and adoption of solutions. Issue #5: Deloitte’s report about the state of blockchain in 2018 suggests that blockchain companies need to collaborate so technology can promote further development of applications, education, and standardization.
IBM has about 1,500 employees working on more than 500 blockchain projects.FactsCNN, IBM2019, ibm industries in which IBM implements the technology are shipping, banking, healthcare, and food safety. For example, IBM’s intelligent logistics platform RoadLaunch integrates Internet of Things technology, Linux Foundation’s Hyperledger blockchain, and AI. Statistics and other data sets, automation, finance transactions, freight and fleet visibility, and all other logistics aspects will be covered by a single platform and revolutionize the way logistics and transportation companies operate.
U.S. spending on blockchain-based products and services is expected to reach $41 billion by 2025.FactsResearchAndMarkets.com2019, statistics spending in the United States increased by 110% during 2018. The compound annual growth rate for blockchain spending is forecast to be 44.5%.
It is expected that blockchain-based projects will add more than $360 billion of value to businesses by 2026.FactsGartner2019, statistics predicts that the projects’ value will surge to over $3.1 trillion by 2030, when blockchain has become a mainstream technology.
New Kids on the Blockchain: 44% of gamers have either purchased or traded game items using blockchain tech.FactsStatista2019, statistics blockchain-powered gaming marketplace has some serious advantages over traditional solutions. Thanks to decentralized ledger technology, users around the world can buy, exchange, and even create and sell gaming items, which will surely change the gaming industry as we know it.
Some of the world’s largest banks are investing about $50 billion to build a blockchain-based digital cash settlement system.FactsReuters2019, statistics to a Reuters report, the banks include UBS, Banco Santander, Bank of New York Mellon Corp, State Street Corp, Credit Suisse Group AG, Barclays PLC, HSBC Holdings Plc, and Deutsche Bank AG. The system is called Fnality and it aims to improve efficiency of clearing and settlement in financial market. Fnality could launch in 2020.
It is expected that global healthcare-market spending on blockchain will hit $5.61 billion by 2025.FactsBIS Research2019, statistics it comes to data breach-related costs, IT costs, operations, personnel, and reductions in fraud or counterfeit products, the adoption of blockchain could save the healthcare industry up to $150 billion. Blockchain has the potential to make the drug supply chain more efficient, improve data accuracy and management, find the most appropriate professionals more quickly, and help providers stay on top of compliance and government regulations.
Only 0.71% of the world’s population, 50 million people use blockchain technology.Facts8-bit.io2019, statistics agree that the technology will not reach mainstream adoption for at least five years. However, investing in blockchain represents a smart step in the long term.
The most infamous, and largest blockchain hack happened at the Mt. Gox cryptocurrency exchange.FactsCoinSutra2019, statistics attack occurred in 2014, when Mt. Gox was handling about 70% of the world’s Bitcoin exchanges. Soon after that, Mt. Gox ceased operations and filed for bankruptcy. More than 750,000 BTCs, around $350 million were stolen from the exchange.
Bitcoin’s blockchain electricity consumption generates carbon emissions comparable to the levels produced by Kansas City or countries like Jordan or Sri Lanka.FactsJoule2019, energy, scalability miners generate annual emissions of carbon dioxide of between 22 and 22.9 megatons, according to a Technical University of Munich study published in the journal Joule. The study suggests that carbon dioxide emissions would be twice as high if other cryptocurrencies were taken into account.
The highest-ever price for a single Bitcoin: $20,089.Facts99Bitcoins, CryptoCurrency Facts2019, statistics prices reached an all-time high on December 18, 2017. The world’s best-known cryptocurrency gained value for the first time in October 2009, when 5,050 BTC were sold for a little more than $5. The current Bitcoin price is about $9,200. If you’re doing your own Bitcoin research, you may have come across the term sats crypto. Sats is short for Satoshis, the smallest unit of BTC. One Satoshi equals to 0.00000001 BTC, or one hundred millionth of a Bitcoin. Remember, Bitcoin current value readings are transient. The currency’s value can change in a matter of hours.
The current size of Bitcoin blockchain is 210 gigabytes.FactsBitcoin.com2019, statistics Bitcoin blockchain expands to hold all blocks and transactions. The average transaction size in June 2019 was 943 bytes.
The maximum number of Bitcoins that can be mined is 21 million.FactsCoinSutra,, IT Pro2019, statistics to blockchain predictions, the last BTC will be mined in the year 2140. Almost 18 million Bitcoins have been mined so far. What is cryptocurrency mining? We’re glad you asked. Every time new BTC blockchain or other crypto transactions are made, they must be added to the blockchain. A miner is rewarded with a small amount of cryptocurrency for carrying out two tasks: validating transactions and guessing a unique 64-digit hexadecimal code, hash. For this purpose, powerful graphic cards manufactured by Nvidia or AMD are used. This time-consuming method may cost you more on your electric bill than you earn in cryptocurrency. However, there are easier ways to get your share of digital currencies. Crypto enthusiasts use digital currency exchanges to buy crypto coins for fiat money or to trade them for another altcoin. Since cryptocurrency values are highly volatile, using forecast and prognosis tools, such as Wallet Investor predictions, for example is a good approach.
More Bitcoin mining stats: In 2018, 44% of BTC mining pools were located in the Asia-Pacific region.FactsInvestopedia, Statista2019, statistics mining pool is created when cryptocurrency miners combine their computer resources over a network. Each member of the mining pool receives a reward – a share of the mined cryptocurrency – according to their contribution in finding another block. The Asia-Pacific region also has the largest percent of Litecoin mining pools, 52%. You can find the latest news and useful information about the Litecoin market on Reddit. 29% of BTC mining pools are located in North America. When it comes to mining statistics for other cryptocurrencies, 21% of Ethereum, 37% of ZCash, 34% of Monero and 28% of LTC mining pools are also located in this part of the world. Most Ethereum mining pools are located in Europe, 49%.
The first Bitcoin transaction occurred in 2010, when two pizzas were bought for 10.000 BTC.FactsYahoo News2019, statistics May 17, 2010, Laszlo Hanyecz bought two Papa John’s pizzas for 10,000 BTC. If we take into account how much bitcoin is worth today, it would mean that Laszlo, aka Bitcoin Pizza Guy paid about $90,000,000 for the meal. Plus tip, presumably. The day of the transaction is known as Bitcoin Pizza Day among blockchain and crypto enthusiasts.
Address, Wallet AddressDefinitionsConsensys2020, address, wallet address to send and receive transactions on a blockchain network. An address is an alphanumeric character string, which can also be represented as a scannable QR code.
AirdropDefinitionsConsensys2020, airdrop token distribution method used to send cryptocurrency or tokens to wallet addresses. Sometimes airdrops are used for marketing purposes in exchange for simple tasks like reshares, referrals, or app downloads.
Air-gappingDefinitionsConsensys2020, air-gapping method for securing computers in which the device does not connect to the internet or any other open networks.
AltcoinDefinitionsConsensys2020, altcoin digital currency alternative to Bitcoin. Many altcoins are forks [see below for definition] of Bitcoin with minor changes, e.g., Litecoin.
AML, Anti-Money LaunderingDefinitionsConsensys2020, aml, anti-money laundering Laundering. A set of international laws enacted to diminish the potential for criminal organizations or individuals to launder money through cryptocurrencies.
API, Application Programming InterfaceDefinitionsConsensys2020, api, application programming interface Programming Interface. A software intermediary that allows two separate applications to communicate with one another. APIs define methods of communication between various components.
ASIC, Application Specific Integrated CircuitDefinitionsConsensys2020, asic, application specific integrated circuit Specific Integrated Circuit. ASICs are silicon chips designed to do a specific task. In ASIC use for mining cryptocurrencies, the ASIC will perform a calculation to find values that provide a desired solution when placed into a hashing algorithm.
Bitcoin, BTCDefinitionsConsensys2020, bitcoin, btc first cryptocurrency based on the Proof of Work blockchain. Bitcoin was created in 2009 by Satoshi Nakomoto — a pseudonym for an individual whose real identity is unknown — and the concept of cryptocurrency was outlined in a white paper titled “Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System.”
BlockchainDefinitionsConsensys2020, blockchain consensus digital ledger comprised of unchangeable, digitally recorded data in packages called blocks. Each block is ‘chained’ to the next block using a cryptographic signature. This allows blockchains to act like a ledger, which can be shared with and accessed by anyone with the appropriate permissions. Click here to learn more about blockchain.
Block HeightDefinitionsConsensys2020, block height number of blocks connected together in the blockchain. For example, Height 0 would be the very first block, which is also called the Genesis Block.
Block RewardDefinitionsConsensys2020, block reward reward given to a miner after it has successfully hashed a transaction block. Block rewards can be a mixture of coins and transaction fees. The composition depends on the policy used by the cryptocurrency in question, and whether all of the coins have already been successfully mined. The current block reward for the Bitcoin network is 12.5 bitcoins per block.
Bounty / Bug BountyDefinitionsConsensys2020, bounty / bug bounty reward that’s paid for the completion of a given task. Tasks include identifying code vulnerabilities, creating content, design work, research, translations, social impact and more.
ClientDefinitionsConsensys2020, client that accesses a blockchain via a local computer and helps to process transactions. A client usually includes a cryptocurrency software wallet.
CoinDefinitionsConsensys2020, coin coin or altcoin is a representation of digital asset value that is generated via their own independent blockchain.
Cold Wallet / Cold StorageDefinitionsConsensys2020, cold wallet / cold storage offline wallet that is never connected to the internet. These wallets protect cryptocurrencies from getting hacked online.
Confirmation / Block ConfirmationDefinitionsConsensys2020, confirmation / block confirmation confirmation means that the network has verified the blockchain transaction. This happens through a process known as mining, in a Proof of Work system, e.g., Bitcoin. Once a transaction is successfully confirmed it theoretically cannot be reversed or double spent. The more confirmations a transaction has, the harder it becomes to perform a double spend attack.
ConsensusDefinitionsConsensys2020, consensus process used by a group consisting of peers that is responsible for maintaining distributed ledger use. The way to reach consensus on the use of the ledger’s contents.
CryptocurrencyDefinitionsConsensys2020, cryptocurrency currency that is based on mathematics and uses encryption techniques to regulate the creation of units of currency as well as verifying the transfer of funds. Cryptocurrencies operate independently of a central bank.
CryptographyDefinitionsConsensys2020, cryptography method for secure communication using code. Symmetric-key cryptography is used by various blockchain networks for transfer of cryptocurrencies. Blockchain addresses generated for wallets are paired with private keys that allow transfer of cryptocurrency. Paired public and private keys allow funds to be unlocked.
DAO, digital decentralized autonomous organizationDefinitionsConsensys2020, dao, digital decentralized autonomous organization known as the digital decentralized autonomous organization, DAO. Alternatively, the first known example of a DAO was named The DAO. The DAO served as a form of investor-directed venture capital fund, which sought to provide enterprises with new decentralized business models. Ethereum-based, The DAO’s code was open source. The organization set the record for the most crowdfunded project in 2016, however, those funds were partially stolen by hackers. The hack caused an Ethereum hard-fork which lead to the creation of Ethereum Classic.
DecentralizationDefinitionsConsensys2020, decentralization transfer of authority and responsibility from a centralized organization, government, or party to a distributed network.
Decentralized Application, dappDefinitionsConsensys2020, decentralized application, dapp open source, software application with backend code running on a decentralized peer-to-peer network rather than a centralized server.
Decentralized Finance, DeFiDefinitionsConsensys2020, decentralized finance, defi finance—often called DeFi or open finance—refers to the economic paradigm shift enabled by decentralized technologies, particularly blockchain networks. DeFi represents a shift from a centralized and closed financial system to a universally accessible economy that is based on open protocols that are interoperable, programmable, and composable.
DepositDefinitionsConsensys2020, deposit property put into a contract involving a different party such that if certain conditions are not satisfied that property is automatically forfeited to the identified counterparty.
Digital AssetDefinitionsConsensys2020, digital asset digital commodity that is scarce, electronically transferable, and intangible with a market value.
Digital IdentityDefinitionsConsensys2020, digital identity online or networked identity adopted by an individual, organization, or electronic device.
Digital SignatureDefinitionsConsensys2020, digital signature code generated by public key encryption and attached to an electronically transmitted document in order to verify the contents of the document.
Distributed Denial of Service, DDoS AttackDefinitionsConsensys2020, distributed denial of service, ddos attack type of cyber-attack in which the perpetrator continuously overwhelms the system with requests in order to prevent service of legitimate requests.
Distributed LedgerDefinitionsConsensys2020, distributed ledger type of database which spreads across multiple sites, countries, or institutions. Records are stored sequentially in a continuous ledger. Distributed ledger data can be either “permissioned” or “unpermissioned” to control who can view it.
DifficultyDefinitionsConsensys2020, difficulty concept outlining how hard it is to verify blocks in a blockchain network during Proof of Work mining. In the Bitcoin network, the difficulty of mining adjusts alters blocks every 2016 blocks. This is to keep block verification time at ten minutes.
Double SpendDefinitionsConsensys2020, double spend event during which someone in the Bitcoin network tries to send a specific bitcoin transaction to two different recipients at once. However, each bitcoin transaction is confirmed it becomes almost impossible to double spend it. The more confirmations that a particular transaction has, the decreased likelihood of double spending the bitcoin from the transaction.
Enterprise Ethereum Alliance, EEADefinitionsConsensys2020, enterprise ethereum alliance, eea group of Ethereum core developers, startups, and large companies working together to commercialize and use Ethereum for different business applications.
EIP, Ethereum Improvement ProposalsDefinitionsConsensys2020, eip, ethereum improvement proposals Improvement Proposals, EIPs describe standards for the Ethereum platform, including core protocol specifications, client APIs, and contract standards.
EncryptionDefinitionsConsensys2020, encryption process used to combine a document, plaintext with a shorter string of data referred to as “a key” in order to produce an output, ciphertext. This output can be “decrypted” back into the original plaintext by someone else who has the key.
ERC20 Token StandardDefinitionsConsensys2020, erc20 token standard is the abbreviation for Ethereum Request for Comment and is followed by the assignment number of the standard. ERC20 is a technical standard for smart contracts the majority of Ethereum tokens follow. This list of rules states the requirements that a token must fulfill to be compliant and function within the Ethereum network.
ERC721 Token StandardDefinitionsConsensys2020, erc721 token standard non-fungible Ethereum token standard. This token standard is used to represent a unique digital asset that is not interchangeable.
Ether, ETHDefinitionsConsensys2020, ether, eth is the native currency of the Ethereum blockchain network. Ether—also referred to as ETH—functions as a fuel of the Ethereum ecosystem by acting as a medium of incentive and form of payment for network participants to execute essential operations.
EthereumDefinitionsConsensys2020, ethereum public blockchain network and decentralized software platform upon which developers build and run applications.
EVM, Ethereum Virtual MachineDefinitionsConsensys2020, evm, ethereum virtual machine Ethereum Virtual Machine, EVM is Turing complete and allows anyone, anywhere to execute arbitrary EVM Byte Code. All Ethereum nodes run on the EVM. The project is designed to prevent denial-of-service attacks. It is home for smart contracts based on the Ethereum blockchain.
ExchangeDefinitionsConsensys2020, exchange place to trade cryptocurrency. Centralized exchanges, operated by companies like Coinbase and Gemini, function as intermediaries, whie decentralized exchanges do not have a central authority.
Fiat CurrencyDefinitionsConsensys2020, fiat currency currency. For example: US Dollars, USD, Euros, EUR, Yuan, CNY, and Yen, JPY
ForkDefinitionsConsensys2020, fork fork creates an alternative version of a blockchain, and are often enacted intentionally to apply upgrades to a network. Soft Forks render two chains with some compatibility, while Hard Forks create a new version of the chain that must be adopted to continue participation. In the instance of a contentious Hard Fork, this can create two versions of a blockchain network.
GasDefinitionsConsensys2020, gas measure of the computational steps required for a transaction on the Ethereum network that then equates to a fee for network users paid in small units of ETH specified as Gwei.
Genesis BlockDefinitionsConsensys2020, genesis block initial block of data computed in the history of a blockchain network.
GweiDefinitionsConsensys2020, gwei minuscule and common denomination of ETH, and the unit in which gas prices are often specified.
HashDefinitionsConsensys2020, hash function that takes an input, and then outputs an alphanumeric string known as the “hash value” or “digital fingerprint.” Each block in the blockchain contains the hash value that validated the transaction before it followed by its own hash value. Hashes confirm transactions on the blockchain.
HalvingDefinitionsConsensys2020, halving cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, have a finite supply, which makes them a scarce digital commodity. The total amount of Bitcoin that will ever be issued is 21 million. The number of bitcoins generated per block is decreased 50% every four years. This is called “halving.” The final halving will take place in the year 2140.
Hard ForkDefinitionsConsensys2020, hard fork hard fork occurs when there is a change in the blockchain that is not backward compatible, not compatible with older versions, thus requiring all participants to upgrade to the new version in order to be able to continue participating on the network.
Hardware WalletDefinitionsConsensys2020, hardware wallet physical device—like the famed Ledger Wallet—that can be connected to the web and interact with online exchanges, but can also be used as cold storage, not connected to the internet.
Hot Wallet / Hard StorageDefinitionsConsensys2020, hot wallet / hard storage wallet that is directly connected to the internet at all times, for example one that is held on a centralized exchange. Hot wallets are considered to have lower security than cold storage systems or hardware wallets.
Hybrid Consensus Model: PoS / PoWDefinitionsConsensys2020, hybrid consensus model: pos / pow hybrid consensus model that utilizes a combination of Proof of Stake, PoS and Proof of Work, PoW consensus. Using this Hybrid consensus mechanism, blocks are validated from not only miners, but also voters, stakeholders to form a balanced network governance.
ImmutabilityDefinitionsConsensys2020, immutability inability to be altered or changed over time. A key element of blockchain networks, once written onto a blockchain ledger, data cannot be altered. This immutability provides the basis for commerce and trade to take place on blockchain networks.
Initial Coin Offering, ICODefinitionsConsensys2020, initial coin offering, ico Initial Coin Offering, also called ICO occurs when a new cryptocurrency sells advance tokens in exchange for upfront capital.
InterPlanetary File System, IPFSDefinitionsConsensys2020, interplanetary file system, ipfs decentralized file storage and referencing system for the Ethereum blockchain. IFPS is an open source protocol that enables storing and sharing hypermedia, text, audio, visual is a distributed manner without relying on a single point of failure. This distributed file system enables applications to run faster, safer and more transparently.
Know Your Customer, KYCDefinitionsConsensys2020, know your customer, kyc process in which a business must verify the identity and background information, address, financials, etc of their customers. For example, current regulations and laws require banks and other financial institutions to keep and report customers’ personal information and transactions.
LiquidityDefinitionsConsensys2020, liquidity availability of liquid assets to a company or market. An asset is considered more liquid if it can easily be converted into cash. The harder the ability to turn an asset into cash the more illiquid the asset. For example, stocks are considered relatively liquid assets as they can be easily converted to cash while real estate is considered an illiquid asset. The liquidity of an asset affects its risk potential and market price.
Liquid Democracy, Delegative DemocracyDefinitionsConsensys2020, liquid democracy, delegative democracy government system where votes can be delegated or proxied to other individuals such as friends, politicians, or subject matter experts. For example, in a liquid democracy, Bob could give Alice his vote and Alice would then vote for both herself and Bob. A liquid democracy has been explored as a governance mechanism for Decentralized Autonomous Organizations where every participant is able to vote or delegate their vote to another individual.
MainnetDefinitionsConsensys2020, mainnet primary network where actual transactions take place on a specific distributed ledger. For example, The Ethereum mainnet is the public blockchain where network validation and transactions take place.
Market CapDefinitionsConsensys2020, market cap for Market Capitalization, this term refers to the total value held in a particular industry, market, company, or asset. For a publicly traded company, the market cap is the total dollar market value of a company’s outstanding shares. For Bitcoin or Ethereum, the total market cap is a reflection of the current existing supply times the market price.
Merkle TreeDefinitionsConsensys2020, merkle tree to the concept of a family tree, where a parent branch splits into children branches, which then extrapolated into grandchildren branches. A merkle tree is a data structure in which a single hash code function(cryptographic code splits into smaller branches. In the diagram Hash becomes “Hash 0” and “Hash 1,” which then splits again and is represented on the blockchain. This type of data structure enables for faster verification on a blockchain network.
MiningDefinitionsConsensys2020, mining process by which “blocks” or transactions are verified and added to a blockchain. In order to verify a block a miner must use a computer to solve a cryptographic problem. Once the computer has solved the problem, the block is considered “mined” or verified. In the Bitcoin or Ethereum blockchain, the first computer to mine or verify the block receives bitcoin or ether, respectively.
Multi Signature, MultiSigDefinitionsConsensys2020, multi signature, multisig crypto-asset wallet that requires multiple keys to access. Typically, a specified number of individuals are required to approve or “sign” a transaction before they are able to access the wallet. This is different from most wallets which only require one signature to approve a transaction.
Node, Full NodeDefinitionsConsensys2020, node, full node computer connected to the blockchain network is referred to as a node. A full node is a computer that can fully validate transactions and download the entire data of a specific blockchain. In contrast a “lightweight” or “light” node does not download all pieces of a blockchain’s data and uses a different validation process.
Non-Fungible Token, NFTDefinitionsConsensys2020, non-fungible token, nft refers to an object’s ability to be exchanged for another. For example, an individual dollar is considered fungible as we can trade dollars with one another. Artwork is usually deemed non-fungible as paintings, sculptures, or masterpieces are likely to be unequal in quality or value. A non-fungible token is a type of token that is a unique digital asset and has no equal token. This is in contrast to cryptocurrencies like ether that are fungible in nature.
OracleDefinitionsConsensys2020, oracle, an oracle is any entity or person that is relied on to report the outcome of an event. In a blockchain network an oracle, human or machine helps communicate data to a smart contract which can then be used to verify an event or specific outcome.
P2P, Peer-to-peerDefinitionsConsensys2020, p2p, peer-to-peer, P2P refers to interactions that happen between two parties, usually two separate individuals. A P2P network can be any number of individuals. In regards to a blockchain network, individuals are able to transact or interact with each other without relying on an intermediary or single point of failure.
Permissioned LedgerDefinitionsConsensys2020, permissioned ledger blockchain network in which access to ledger or network requires permission from an individual or group of individuals. Permissioned ledgers may have one or many owners. Consensus on a permissioned ledger is conducted by the trusted actors, such as government departments, banks, or other known entities. Permissioned blockchains or ledgers contain highly-verifiable data sets because the consensus process creates a digital signature, which can be seen by all parties. A permissioned ledger is much easier to maintain and considerably faster than a public blockchain. For example, Quorum or Hyperledger Besu are permissioned ledgers that can be more easily set up for large enterprises. In contrast, the public Ethereum blockchain is a permissionless ledger which anyone can access.
Private BlockchainDefinitionsConsensys2020, private blockchain blockchain or distributed ledger that has a closed network where participants are controlled by a single entity. A private blockchain requires a verification process for new participants. A private blockchain may also limit which individuals are able to participate in consensus of the blockchain network.
Private CurrencyDefinitionsConsensys2020, private currency currency or token issued by a private individual or firm. Typically, the token or currency is limited to use within the network of that particular firm or individual. This is not to be confused with a “privacy cryptocurrency” which are cryptocurrency with specific privacy features, such as hidden user identities.
Private KeyDefinitionsConsensys2020, private key private key is an alphanumeric string of data that corresponds to a single specific wallet or “public address”. Private keys can be thought of as a password that enables an individual to access their crypto wallet/account. Never reveal your private key to anyone, as whoever controls the private key controls the account funds. If you lose your private key, then you lose access to your wallet.
Proof of AuthorityDefinitionsConsensys2020, proof of authority consensus mechanism used in private blockchains to grants a single private key the authority to generate all of the blocks or validate transactions.
Proof of Stake, PoSDefinitionsConsensys2020, proof of stake, pos alternative consensus protocol, in which an individual or “validator” uses their own cryptocurrency to validate transactions or blocks. Validators “stake” their cryptocurrency, such as ether, on whichever transactions they choose to validate. If the individual validates a block, group of transactions correctly then the individual receives a reward. Typically, if a validator verifies an incorrect transaction then they lose the cryptocurrency that they staked. Proof of Stake requires a negligible amount of computing power compared to Proof of Work consensus, see also Hybrid ConsenSys Model.
Proof of Work, PoWDefinitionsConsensys2020, proof of work, pow protocol for establishing consensus across a system that ties mining capability to computational power. Hashing a block, which is in itself an easy computational process, now requires each miner to solve for a set, difficult variable. In effect, the process of hashing each block becomes a competition. This addition of solving for a target increases the difficulty of successfully hashing each block. For each hashed block, the overall process of hashing will have taken some time and computational effort. Thus, a hashed block is considered Proof of Work, see also Hybrid ConsenSys Model.
ProtocolDefinitionsConsensys2020, protocol set of rules that dictate how data is exchanged and transmitted. This pertains to cryptocurrency in blockchain when referring to the formal rules that outline how these actions are performed across a specific network.
Public BlockchainDefinitionsConsensys2020, public blockchain globally open network where anyone can participate in transactions, execute consensus protocol to help determine which blocks get added to the chain, and maintain the shared ledger.
Public KeyDefinitionsConsensys2020, public key and used by anyone to encrypt messages before they are sent to a known recipient with a matching private key for decryption. By pairing a public key with a private key, transactions not dependent on trusting involved parties or intermediaries are possible. The public key encrypts a message into an unreadable format and the corresponding private key makes it readable again for the intended party.
RelayerDefinitionsConsensys2020, relayer party or entity which hosts an off-chain orderbook. Relayers help traders discover counter-parties and cryptographically move orders between them. 0x is an example of a popular Ethereum relayer protocol.
Satoshi NakamotoDefinitionsConsensys2020, satoshi nakamoto pseudonymous individual or entity who created the Bitcoin protocol, solving the digital currency issue of the “double spend.” Nakamoto first published their white paper describing the project in 2008 and the first Bitcoin software was released one year later.
SerializationDefinitionsConsensys2020, serialization process of converting a data structure into a sequence of bytes. Ethereum internally uses an encoding format called recursive-length prefix encoding, RLP.
ScalabilityDefinitionsConsensys2020, scalability change in size or scale to handle the network’s demands. This word is used to refer to a blockchain project’s ability to handle network traffic, future growth, and capacity in its intended application.
ShardDefinitionsConsensys2020, shard refers to splitting the entire network into multiple portions called “shards.” Each shard would contain its own independent state, meaning a unique set of account balances and smart contracts. Usually, shards must be tightly coupled and side-chains must be loosely coupled.
Slashing conditionDefinitionsConsensys2020, slashing condition condition that causes the validator’s deposit to be destroyed when they trigger it.
Smart ContractsDefinitionsConsensys2020, smart contracts contracts are programs whose terms are recorded in a computer language instead of legal language. Smart contracts are automated actions that can be coded and executed once a set of conditions is met.
Self-executingDefinitionsConsensys2020, self-executing by itself, not controlled by any other party other than itself. Self-executing smart contracts cut costs/overhead by removing the need for an arbitrator and trust toward a third party.
Soft ForkDefinitionsConsensys2020, soft fork change to the software protocol where only previously valid blocks/transactions are made invalid. Since old nodes will recognize the new blocks as valid, a soft fork is backward-compatible. However, this can result in a potential divide in the blockchain, as the old software generates blocks that read as invalid according to the new rules.
SolidityDefinitionsConsensys2020, solidity programming language developers use to write smart contracts on the Ethereum network.
StablecoinDefinitionsConsensys2020, stablecoin cryptocurrency pegged to a stable asset, like fiat or gold. It theoretically remains stable in price as it is measured against a known amount of an asset not subject to fluctuation.
StateDefinitionsConsensys2020, state set of data that a blockchain network strictly needs to keep track of, and that represents data currently relevant to applications on the chain.
TestnetDefinitionsConsensys2020, testnet alternative blockchain developers use to test applications in a near-live environment.
Testnet KovenDefinitionsConsensys2020, testnet koven Testnet that uses Proof of Authority consensus and currently only supports Parity clients.
Testnet RinkebyDefinitionsConsensys2020, testnet rinkeby Testnet that uses Proof of Authority consensus and currently only supports geth clients.
Testnet RopstenDefinitionsConsensys2020, testnet ropsten Testnet that uses Proof of Work consensus, can use geth or Parity, and is currently the most similar to mainnet.
TokenDefinitionsConsensys2020, token Token represents an asset built on an existing blockchain, different from a coin. Tokens are designed to be unique, liquid, secure, instantly transferable, and digitally scarce.
Transaction BlockDefinitionsConsensys2020, transaction block collection of transactions on a blockchain network, gathered into a set or a block that can then be hashed and added to the blockchain.
Transaction FeeDefinitionsConsensys2020, transaction fee small fee imposed on some transactions sent across a blockchain network. The transaction fee is awarded to the miner that successfully hashes the block containing the relevant transaction.
Turing CompleteDefinitionsConsensys2020, turing complete machine that can calculate on a level equal to a programmable computer is Turing Complete, or computationally universal.
ValidatorDefinitionsConsensys2020, validator participant in Proof of Stake consensus. Validators need to submit a security deposit in order to get included in the validator set.
WalletDefinitionsConsensys2020, wallet designated storage location for digital assets, cryptocurrency that has an address for sending and receiving funds. The wallet can be online, offline, or on a physical device.
zk-SNARKDefinitionsConsensys2020, zk-snark is an acryonym for zero-knowledge succinct non-interactive argument of knowledge, a cryptographic proof system that enables a user to verify a transaction without revealing the actual data of the transaction, and without interacting with the user who published the transaction.
51% AttackDefinitionsConsensys2020, 51% attack more than half the computer power or mining hash rate on a network is run by a single person or a single group of people, then a 51% attack is in operation. This means that this entity has full control of the network and can negatively affect a cryptocurrency by taking over mining operations, stopping or changing transactions, and double-spending coins.
AdministratorDefinitionsRauchs, M., Glidden, A., Gordon, B., Pieters, G. C., Recanatini, M., Rostand, F., Vagneur, K. & Zhang, B.2018, administratorDistributed ledger technology systems: a conceptual framework. Available at SSRN 3230013.Actors that controls access to the core codebase repository and can decide to add, remove and amend code to change system rules. An administrator is often considerably involved in the governance process.
Candidate RecordDefinitionsRauchs, M., Glidden, A., Gordon, B., Pieters, G. C., Recanatini, M., Rostand, F., Vagneur, K. & Zhang, B.2018, recordDistributed ledger technology systems: a conceptual framework. Available at SSRN 3230013.A record that has not yet been propagated to the network and thus not been subject to network consensus
Censorship ResistanceDefinitionsRauchs, M., Glidden, A., Gordon, B., Pieters, G. C., Recanatini, M., Rostand, F., Vagneur, K. & Zhang, B.2018, censorship resistanceDistributed ledger technology systems: a conceptual framework. Available at SSRN 3230013.Inability of a single party or cartel to unilaterally perform any of the following: 1) change rules of the system; 2) block or censor transactions; and 3) seize accounts and/or freeze balances
ConfirmationDefinitionsRauchs, M., Glidden, A., Gordon, B., Pieters, G. C., Recanatini, M., Rostand, F., Vagneur, K. & Zhang, B.2018, confirmationDistributed ledger technology systems: a conceptual framework. Available at SSRN 3230013.The number of records that must be reversed or overwritten to remove a transaction from the ledger state.
Consensus AlgorithmDefinitionsRauchs, M., Glidden, A., Gordon, B., Pieters, G. C., Recanatini, M., Rostand, F., Vagneur, K. & Zhang, B.2018, consensus algorithmDistributed ledger technology systems: a conceptual framework. Available at SSRN 3230013.A set of rules and processes used by the network to reach agreement and validate records
DeveloperDefinitionsRauchs, M., Glidden, A., Gordon, B., Pieters, G. C., Recanatini, M., Rostand, F., Vagneur, K. & Zhang, B.2018, developerDistributed ledger technology systems: a conceptual framework. Available at SSRN 3230013.Actor that writes and reviews code that underlies the technological building blocks of a DLT system and its connected system(s). A developer can be professionally employed or participating as volunteer contributor.
DLT SystemDefinitionsRauchs, M., Glidden, A., Gordon, B., Pieters, G. C., Recanatini, M., Rostand, F., Vagneur, K. & Zhang, B.2018, dltDistributed ledger technology systems: a conceptual framework. Available at SSRN 3230013.A system of electronic records that (i) enables a network of independent participants to establish a consensus around (ii) the authoritative ordering of cryptographicallyvalidated (‘signed’) transactions. These records are made (iii) persistent by replicating the data across multiple nodes, and (iv) tamper-evident by linking them by cryptographic hashes.(v) The shared result of the reconciliation/ consensus process - the ‘ledger’ - serves as the authoritative version for these records.
Endogenous ReferenceDefinitionsRauchs, M., Glidden, A., Gordon, B., Pieters, G. C., Recanatini, M., Rostand, F., Vagneur, K. & Zhang, B.2018 ledger technology systems: a conceptual framework. Available at SSRN 3230013.Data which can be created and transferred solely through the means of the system and has meaning within the system. Enforcement is automatically performed by the system.
Exogenous ReferenceDefinitionsRauchs, M., Glidden, A., Gordon, B., Pieters, G. C., Recanatini, M., Rostand, F., Vagneur, K. & Zhang, B.2018 ledger technology systems: a conceptual framework. Available at SSRN 3230013.Data that makes reference to some real-world condition and needs to be incorporated from the outside. This generally requires a gateway to make the connection to the external system and enforce decisions outside the DLT system.
ForkDefinitionsRauchs, M., Glidden, A., Gordon, B., Pieters, G. C., Recanatini, M., Rostand, F., Vagneur, K. & Zhang, B.2018, forkDistributed ledger technology systems: a conceptual framework. Available at SSRN 3230013.The event of a DLT system splitting into two or more networks. A fork can occur when two or more record producers publish a valid set of records at roughly the same time, as a part of an attack (e.g. 51% attack) or when a DLT system protocol change is attempted (such a fork is ‘hard’ if all users are required to upgrade, otherwise it is ‘soft’).
GatewayDefinitionsRauchs, M., Glidden, A., Gordon, B., Pieters, G. C., Recanatini, M., Rostand, F., Vagneur, K. & Zhang, B.2018, interface, apiDistributed ledger technology systems: a conceptual framework. Available at SSRN 3230013.Actor that provides interfaces to the system by acting as a bridge between the system and the external world.
Hybrid ReferenceDefinitionsRauchs, M., Glidden, A., Gordon, B., Pieters, G. C., Recanatini, M., Rostand, F., Vagneur, K. & Zhang, B.2018 ledger technology systems: a conceptual framework. Available at SSRN 3230013.Data that shares both endogenous and exogenous characteristics. Enforcement is dependent to some extent on gateways.
Independent ValidationDefinitionsRauchs, M., Glidden, A., Gordon, B., Pieters, G. C., Recanatini, M., Rostand, F., Vagneur, K. & Zhang, B.2018, validationDistributed ledger technology systems: a conceptual framework. Available at SSRN 3230013.Ability of the system to enable each participant to independently verify the state of their transactions and integrity of the system.
JournalDefinitionsRauchs, M., Glidden, A., Gordon, B., Pieters, G. C., Recanatini, M., Rostand, F., Vagneur, K. & Zhang, B.2018, transactionDistributed ledger technology systems: a conceptual framework. Available at SSRN 3230013.A set of records held by a node, although not necessarily consistent with the consensus of other nodes. Journals are partial, provisional, and heterogeneous: they may or may not contain all the same records.
LedgerDefinitionsRauchs, M., Glidden, A., Gordon, B., Pieters, G. C., Recanatini, M., Rostand, F., Vagneur, K. & Zhang, B.2018, ledger, transactionDistributed ledger technology systems: a conceptual framework. Available at SSRN 3230013.The authoritative set of records collectively held by a substantial proportion of network participants at any point in time, such that records are unlikely to be erased or amended (i.e. ‘final’).
LogDefinitionsRauchs, M., Glidden, A., Gordon, B., Pieters, G. C., Recanatini, M., Rostand, F., Vagneur, K. & Zhang, B.2018, transactionDistributed ledger technology systems: a conceptual framework. Available at SSRN 3230013.An unordered set of valid transactions held by a node, which have not yet been incorporated into a formal record subject to network consensus rules (i.e. ‘unconfirmed’ transactions). Also called mempool.
MempoolDefinitionsRauchs, M., Glidden, A., Gordon, B., Pieters, G. C., Recanatini, M., Rostand, F., Vagneur, K. & Zhang, B.2018, mempool, transactionDistributed ledger technology systems: a conceptual framework. Available at SSRN 3230013.An unordered set of valid transactions held by a node, which have not yet been incorporated into a formal record subject to network consensus rules (i.e. ‘unconfirmed’ transactions). Also called mempool.
MiningDefinitionsRauchs, M., Glidden, A., Gordon, B., Pieters, G. C., Recanatini, M., Rostand, F., Vagneur, K. & Zhang, B.2018, miningDistributed ledger technology systems: a conceptual framework. Available at SSRN 3230013.The set of processes that specifies the mechanism of updating the ledger: (i) which participants have the right to update the the shared set of authoritative records (permissionless vs. permissioned) and (ii) how participants reach agreement over implementing these updates. Also called transaction processing.
Multi-party ConsensusDefinitionsRauchs, M., Glidden, A., Gordon, B., Pieters, G. C., Recanatini, M., Rostand, F., Vagneur, K. & Zhang, B.2018, consensusDistributed ledger technology systems: a conceptual framework. Available at SSRN 3230013.Ability of the system to enable independent parties to come to agreement on a shared set of records without requiring a central authority.
Native AssetsDefinitionsRauchs, M., Glidden, A., Gordon, B., Pieters, G. C., Recanatini, M., Rostand, F., Vagneur, K. & Zhang, B.2018, digital assetsDistributed ledger technology systems: a conceptual framework. Available at SSRN 3230013.The primary digital asset(s), if any, specified in the protocol that are typically used to regulate record production, pay transaction fees on the network, conduct ‘monetary policy’, or align incentives.
NetworkDefinitionsRauchs, M., Glidden, A., Gordon, B., Pieters, G. C., Recanatini, M., Rostand, F., Vagneur, K. & Zhang, B.2018, networkDistributed ledger technology systems: a conceptual framework. Available at SSRN 3230013.Interconnected actors and processes that implement the protocol.
NodeDefinitionsRauchs, M., Glidden, A., Gordon, B., Pieters, G. C., Recanatini, M., Rostand, F., Vagneur, K. & Zhang, B.2018, nodeDistributed ledger technology systems: a conceptual framework. Available at SSRN 3230013.A network participant communicating with peers over a shared communication channel.
Off-ChainDefinitionsRauchs, M., Glidden, A., Gordon, B., Pieters, G. C., Recanatini, M., Rostand, F., Vagneur, K. & Zhang, B.2018, off-chainDistributed ledger technology systems: a conceptual framework. Available at SSRN 3230013.Interactions, actions, and processes that occur outside of the formal system boundaries.
On-ChainDefinitionsRauchs, M., Glidden, A., Gordon, B., Pieters, G. C., Recanatini, M., Rostand, F., Vagneur, K. & Zhang, B.2018, on-chainDistributed ledger technology systems: a conceptual framework. Available at SSRN 3230013.Interactions, actions, and processes that occur within the system (i.e. at the system level) and are reflected in the data layer.
OracleDefinitionsRauchs, M., Glidden, A., Gordon, B., Pieters, G. C., Recanatini, M., Rostand, F., Vagneur, K. & Zhang, B.2018, oracleDistributed ledger technology systems: a conceptual framework. Available at SSRN 3230013.A gateway that bridges the gap between the DLT system and external systems by serving as a source of information.
ParticipantDefinitionsRauchs, M., Glidden, A., Gordon, B., Pieters, G. C., Recanatini, M., Rostand, F., Vagneur, K. & Zhang, B.2018 ledger technology systems: a conceptual framework. Available at SSRN 3230013.Actor interconnected with other participants in the network and communicating by passing messages among each other
PersistenceDefinitionsRauchs, M., Glidden, A., Gordon, B., Pieters, G. C., Recanatini, M., Rostand, F., Vagneur, K. & Zhang, B.2018 ledger technology systems: a conceptual framework. Available at SSRN 3230013.The ability of data to remain available after the program execution, and to survive the catastrophic loss of an arbitrary number of nodes.
Programmatically-executed TransactionDefinitionsRauchs, M., Glidden, A., Gordon, B., Pieters, G. C., Recanatini, M., Rostand, F., Vagneur, K. & Zhang, B.2018, smart contractDistributed ledger technology systems: a conceptual framework. Available at SSRN 3230013.A computer script that, when triggered by a particular message, is executed by the system. When the code is capable of operating as all parties intend, the deterministic nature of the execution reduces the level of trust required for individual participants to interact with each other. They are commonly referred to as smart contracts due to the scripts’ ability to replace certain fiduciary relationships, such as custody and escrow, with code. However, they are not autonomous or adaptive (‘smart’), nor contracts in a legal sense - rather, they can be the technological means of implementing a contract or agreement.
ProtocolDefinitionsRauchs, M., Glidden, A., Gordon, B., Pieters, G. C., Recanatini, M., Rostand, F., Vagneur, K. & Zhang, B.2018, protocolDistributed ledger technology systems: a conceptual framework. Available at SSRN 3230013.Set of software-defined rules that determine how the system operates.
RecordDefinitionsRauchs, M., Glidden, A., Gordon, B., Pieters, G. C., Recanatini, M., Rostand, F., Vagneur, K. & Zhang, B.2018, transactionDistributed ledger technology systems: a conceptual framework. Available at SSRN 3230013.A bundle of transaction data which has been subject to network consensus rules and is part of the global ledger
Record ReorganisationDefinitionsRauchs, M., Glidden, A., Gordon, B., Pieters, G. C., Recanatini, M., Rostand, F., Vagneur, K. & Zhang, B.2018, transactionDistributed ledger technology systems: a conceptual framework. Available at SSRN 3230013.A node discovers that a new ledger version has been formed which excludes one or more records that the node previously thought were part of the ledger. These excluded records then become ‘orphaned’.
Shared RecordkeepingDefinitionsRauchs, M., Glidden, A., Gordon, B., Pieters, G. C., Recanatini, M., Rostand, F., Vagneur, K. & Zhang, B.2018, transactionDistributed ledger technology systems: a conceptual framework. Available at SSRN 3230013.The ability of the system to enable multiple parties to collectively create, maintain, and update a shared set of records.
Smart ContractDefinitionsRauchs, M., Glidden, A., Gordon, B., Pieters, G. C., Recanatini, M., Rostand, F., Vagneur, K. & Zhang, B.2018, smart contractDistributed ledger technology systems: a conceptual framework. Available at SSRN 3230013.A computer script that, when triggered by a particular message, is executed by the system. When the code is capable of operating as all parties intend, the deterministic nature of the execution reduces the level of trust required for individual participants to interact with each other. They are commonly referred to as smart contracts due to the scripts’ ability to replace certain fiduciary relationships, such as custody and escrow, with code. However, they are not autonomous or adaptive (‘smart’), nor contracts in a legal sense - rather, they can be the technological means of implementing a contract or agreement.
Tamper EvidenceDefinitionsRauchs, M., Glidden, A., Gordon, B., Pieters, G. C., Recanatini, M., Rostand, F., Vagneur, K. & Zhang, B.2018, tamper-proofDistributed ledger technology systems: a conceptual framework. Available at SSRN 3230013.The ability of participants to easily detect arbitrary changes to confirmed records.
Tamper ResistanceDefinitionsRauchs, M., Glidden, A., Gordon, B., Pieters, G. C., Recanatini, M., Rostand, F., Vagneur, K. & Zhang, B.2018, tamper-proofDistributed ledger technology systems: a conceptual framework. Available at SSRN 3230013.The ability to make it hard for a single party to unilaterally change past records (i.e. transaction history).
TransactionDefinitionsRauchs, M., Glidden, A., Gordon, B., Pieters, G. C., Recanatini, M., Rostand, F., Vagneur, K. & Zhang, B.2018, transactionDistributed ledger technology systems: a conceptual framework. Available at SSRN 3230013.Any proposed change to the ledger; despite the connotation, a transaction need not be economic (value-transferring) in nature. Transactions can be unconfirmed (not included in the ledger) or confirmed (part of the ledger).
Transaction FinalityDefinitionsRauchs, M., Glidden, A., Gordon, B., Pieters, G. C., Recanatini, M., Rostand, F., Vagneur, K. & Zhang, B.2018, transaction Distributed ledger technology systems: a conceptual framework. Available at SSRN 3230013.Determines when a confirmed record can be considered ‘final’ (i.e. not reversible). Finality can be probabilistic (e.g. PoW-based systems that are computationally impractical to revert) or explicit (e.g. systems that incorporate ‘checkpoints’ that must appear in every transaction history). Finalised records are considered permanently settled, whereas records that have been produced but which are feasible to revert are referred to as provisionally settled.
Transaction ProcessingDefinitionsRauchs, M., Glidden, A., Gordon, B., Pieters, G. C., Recanatini, M., Rostand, F., Vagneur, K. & Zhang, B.2018, transactionDistributed ledger technology systems: a conceptual framework. Available at SSRN 3230013.The set of processes that specifies the mechanism of updating the ledger: (i) which participants have the right to update the the shared set of authoritative records (permissionless vs. permissioned) and (ii) how participants reach agreement over implementing these updates. Also called mining.
ValidationDefinitionsRauchs, M., Glidden, A., Gordon, B., Pieters, G. C., Recanatini, M., Rostand, F., Vagneur, K. & Zhang, B.2018, validationDistributed ledger technology systems: a conceptual framework. Available at SSRN 3230013.The set of processes required to ensure that actors independently arrive at the same conclusion with regard to the state of the ledger. This includes verifying the validity of unconfirmed transactions, verifying record proposals, and auditing the state of the system.
WalletDefinitionsRauchs, M., Glidden, A., Gordon, B., Pieters, G. C., Recanatini, M., Rostand, F., Vagneur, K. & Zhang, B.2018, walletDistributed ledger technology systems: a conceptual framework. Available at SSRN 3230013.A software program capable of storing and managing public and private key pairs used to store and transfer digital assets.
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