Your address will show here +12 34 56 78
Das Research Center.

Wir engagieren uns für besser zugängliche Blockchain-Ressourcen. Hilf uns dabei!

Das Research Center ist eine indexierte Sammlung für Blockchain-Ressourcen. In einem Community basierten Ansatz werden Quellen zu Distributed Ledger Technologien gesammelt, indexiert, beschrieben und verlinkt. Das Resultat ist eine filter- und durchsuchbarere Wissensdatenbank von qualitativ hochwertigen Blockchain-Quellen. Von einschlägigen Newsseiten, über Podcast-Geheimtipps bis hin zu wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten kann sie alles enthalten. Hilf uns die Bibliothek zu füllen!
  • Text Hover
Blockchain Research NetworkCompany/ InstituteBlockchain Research Networkn.d., research, academia, university, whitepapern.a.The Blockchain Research Network is an independent network of researchers (broadly construed), with no formal affiliation to any institution. We welcome all members, irrespective of their formal status or relationship to research institutions, as well as industry members. Their website provides access to scientific blockchain sources from different areas.
Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash SystemWhitepaperNakamoto, S.2008, whitepaper, satoshin.a.The Bitcoin white paper has been written by Satoshi Nakamoto, the anonymous bitcoin creator who created the decentralized Bitcoin Network. The blockchain technology he describes in this article is not new, but using the combination of blockchain, cryptocurrency and proof of work resulted in the largest cryptocurrency that is still dominating the cryptocurrency market today.
Ethereum: A Next-Generation Smart Contract and Decentralized Application PlatformWhitepaperButerin, V.2013, whitepaper, smartcontract, platformn.a.The original Ethereum whitepaper was written by Vitalik Buterin and published on his blog in December 2013. It was entitled “Ethereum: The Ultimate Smart Contract and Decentralized Application Platform.” The current version, which has been extensively revised since its inception, is stored on Github. Ethereum was inspired by Mastercoin and other early revisions of the Bitcoin blockchain, and is widely considered the first serious attempt to create a blockchain infrastructure capable of general distributed computing. It is used widely for running decentralized apps (Dapps) across many industries, including enterprise solutions.
Ripple: The Ripple Protocol Consensus AlgorithmWhitepaperSchwartz, D; Youngs, N.; Britto, A.2014, ripple, interbank, cryptocurrency, whitepapern.a.Ripple is a real-time gross settlement system, currency exchange and remittance network created by Ripple Labs Inc., a US-based technology company. Released in 2012, Ripple is built upon a distributed open source protocol, and supports tokens representing fiat currency, cryptocurrency, commodities, or other units of value such as frequent flier miles or mobile minutes. Ripple purports to enable "secure, instantly and nearly free global financial transactions of any size with no chargebacks."
Tether: Fiat currencies on the Bitcoin blockchainWhitepaperTether Limited2016, stablecoin, usdtn.a.A digital token backed by fiat currency provides individuals and organizations with a robust and decentralized method of exchanging value while using a familiar accounting unit. The innovation of blockchains is an auditable and cryptographically secured global ledger. Asset­backed token issuers and other market participants can take advantage of blockchain technology, along with embedded consensus systems, to transact in familiar, less volatile currencies and assets. In order to maintain accountability and to ensure stability in exchange price, we propose a method to maintain a one­to­one reserve ratio between a cryptocurrency token, called tethers, and its associated real­world asset, fiat currency.
Litecoin WikiWhitepaperLitecoin Foundationn.d., cryptocurrency, zerocost, paymentn.a.Litecoin is a peer-to-peer Internet currency that enables instant, near-zero cost payments to anyone in the world. Litecoin is an open source, global payment network that is fully decentralized without any central authorities. Mathematics secures the network and empowers individuals to control their own finances. Litecoin features faster transaction confirmation times and improved storage efficiency than the leading math-based currency. With substantial industry support, trade volume and liquidity, Litecoin is a proven medium of commerce complementary to Bitcoin.
TensorchartsWebsiteTensorCharts.comn.d.https://tensorcharts.comENcryptocurrency, trading, heat map, order flow, is an online web application that visualizes live cryptocurrency and financial markets data for traders. The advanced toolkit includes order flow, market profile, heat map, market depth, support and resistance zones, bitmex trading statistics and more.
Tensorcharts (Open Interest)WebsiteTensorCharts.comn.d., bitcoin, ethereum, open interest, bitmexn.a.Additionally to their main website, also provides you with live data on open interest of BTC and ETH pairs traded on the cryptocurrency exchange Bitmex. As one of the only open interest providers with (limited) free access, it is definitely a valuable tool for anyone daytrading cryptocurrencies.
EOS: EOS.IO Technical White Paper v2WhitepaperLarimer, D.2017, smartcontract, platformn.a.The EOS.IO software introduces a new blockchain architecture designed to enable vertical and horizontal scaling of decentralized applications. This is achieved by creating an operating system-like construct upon which applications can be built. The software provides accounts, authentication, databases, asynchronous communication, and the scheduling of applications across many of CPU cores or clusters. The resulting technology is a blockchain architecture that may ultimately scale to millions of transactions per second, eliminates user fees, and allows for quick and easy deployment and maintenance of decentralized applications, in the context of a governed blockchain.
Binance ExchangeWhitepaperZhao, C.; Wan, R.; Hofbauer, J.; Jankunas, P.; Yan, A.; Li, S.2017, exchange, cryptocurrencyn.a.In our view, there are fundamentally two different types of exchanges: the ones that deal with fiat currency; and the ones that deal purely in crypto. It is the latter one that we will focus on. Even though they are small now, we strongly believe that pure crypto exchanges will be bigger, many times bigger, than fiat based exchanges in the near future. They will play an ever more important role in world finance and we call this new paradigm Binance​; Binary Finance.
Monero: Crypto Note v 2.0Whitepapervon Saberhagen, N.2013, whitepaper, privacy, cryptocurrencyn.a.In this paper, we study and propose solutions to the main deficiencies of Bitcoin. We believe that a system taking into account the solutions we propose will lead to a healthy competition among different electronic cash systems. We also propose our own electronic cash, “CryptoNote”, a name emphasizing the next breakthrough in electronic cash.
Stellar:WhitepaperMazières, D.2015, federated, byzantineagreement, permissionedblockchainn.a.This paper introduces a new model for consensus called federated Byzantine agreement (FBA). FBA achieves robustness through quorum slices—individual trust decisions made by each node that together determine system-level quorums. Slices bind the system together much the way individual networks’ peering and transit decisions now unify the Internet.
Cardano: Academic PapersWhitepaperIOHK; Cardano Foundationn.d., academia, publicblockchain, smartcontractn.a.Cardano is a decentralised public blockchain and cryptocurrency project and is fully open source. Cardano is developing a smart contract platform which seeks to deliver more advanced features than any protocol previously developed. It is the first blockchain platform to evolve out of a scientific philosophy and a research-first driven approach. The development team consists of a large global collective of expert engineers and researchers
Tron: Advanced Decentralized Blockchain PlatformWhitepaperTron Foundation2018, platform, smartcontractsn.a.TRON is an ambitious project dedicated to the establishment of a truly decentralized Internet and its infrastructure. The TRON Protocol, one of the largest blockchain-based operating systems in the world, offers public blockchain support of high throughput, high scalability, and high availability for all Decentralized Applications (DApps) in the TRON ecosystem. The July 2018 acquisition of BitTorrent further cemented TRON’s leadership in pursuing a decentralized ecosystem.
Tezos: a self-amending crypto-ledgerWhitepaperGoodman, L. M.2014, proof-of-stake, smartcontract, on-chainn.a.We present Tezos, a generic and self-amending crypto-ledger. Tezos can instantiate any blockchain based ledger. The operations of a regular blockchain are implemented as a purely functional module abstracted into a shell responsible for network operations. Bitcoin, Ethereum, Cryptonote, etc. can all be represented within Tezos by implementing the proper interface to the network layer.
Cosmos: A Network of Distributed LedgersWhitepaperKwon, J.; Buchman, E.n.d., internetofblockchains, tendermint, bft, scalabilityn.a.Strictly speaking, Cosmos is a decentralized network of independent parallel blockchains, each powered by BFT consensus algorithms like Tendermint consensus. In other words, Cosmos is an ecosystem of blockchains that can scale and interoperate with each other. Before Cosmos, blockchains were siloed and unable to communicate with each other. They were hard to build and could only handle a small amount of transactions per second. Cosmos solves these problems with a new technical vision.
Iota: The TangleWhitepaperPopov, S.2018, iot, dag, tangle, scalability, microtransactionsn.a.In this paper we analyze the mathematical foundations of IOTA, a cryptocurrency for the Internet-of-Things (IoT) industry. The main feature of this novel cryptocurrency is the tangle, a directed acyclic graph (DAG) for storing transactions. The tangle naturally succeeds the blockchain as its next evolutionary step, and offers features that are required to establish a machineto-machine micropayment system. An essential contribution of this paper is a family of Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms. These algorithms select attachment sites on the tangle for a transaction that has just arrived.
Dash: A Payments-Focused CryptocurrencyWhitepaperDuffield, E.; Diaz, D.2018, masternode, privacy, fungibility, paymentsn.a.A cryptocurrency based on Bitcoin, the work of Satoshi Nakamoto, with various improvements such as a two-tier incentivized network, known as the masternode network. Included are other improvements such as PrivateSend, for increasing fungibility, and InstantSend, which allows instant transaction confirmation without a centralized authority.
Polkadot: Vision for a heterogenous multichain frameworkWhitepaperWood, G.2016, on-chain, governance, interoperability, scalabilityn.a.Present-day blockchain architectures all suffer from a number of issues not least practical means of extensibility and scalability. We believe this stems from tying two very important parts of the consensus architecture, namely canonicality and validity, too closely together. This paper introduces an architecture, the heterogeneous multi-chain, which fundamentally sets the two apart. In compartmentalising these two parts, and by keeping the overall functionality provided to an absolute minimum of security and transport, we introduce practical means of core extensibility in situ. Scalability is addressed through a divide-and-conquer approach to these two functions, scaling out of its bonded core through the incentivisation of untrusted public nodes. The heterogeneous nature of this architecture enables many highly divergent types of consensus systems interoperating in a trustless, fully decentralised “federation”, allowing open and closed networks to have trust-free access to each other. We put forward a means of providing backwards compatibility with one or more pre-existing networks such as Ethereum. We believe that such a system provides a useful base-level component in the overall search for a practically implementable system capable of achieving global-commerce levels of scalability and privacy.
Maker: The Dai Stablecoin SystemWhitepaperMaker Team2017, stablecoin, maker, ethereum, collateraln.a.The Dai Stablecoin is a collateral-backed cryptocurrency whose value is stable relative to the US Dollar. We believe that stable digital assets like Dai are essential to realizing the full potential of blockchain technology. Unlike other Stablecoins, Dai is completely decentralized. Users can obtain Dai by buying it from brokers or exchanges, and Dai holders can utilize a special mechanic known as the Dai Savings Rate to earn a steady, low-risk return on their holdings.
NEO: A distributed network for the Smart EconomyWhitepaperNeo Networkn.d., smarteconomy, digitalassets, smartcontract, dappsn.a.NEO is the use of blockchain technology and digital identity to digitize assets, the use of smart contracts for digital assets to be self-managed, to achieve "smart economy" with a distributed network.
Chainlink: A Decentralized Oracle NetworkWhitepaperEllis, S.; Juels, A.; Nazarov, S.2017, oracle, on-chain, off-chain, securityn.a.In this paper we present ChainLink, a decentralized oracle network. We describe the on-chain components that ChainLink provides for contracts to gain external connectivity, and the software powering the nodes of the network. We present both a simple on-chain contract data aggregation system, and a more efficient off-chain consensus mechanism. We also describe supporting reputation and security monitoring services for ChainLink that help users make informed provider selections and achieve robust service even under aggressively adversarial conditions. Finally, we characterize the properties of an ideal oracle as guidance for our security strategy, and lay out possible future improvements, including richly featured oracle programming, data-source infrastructure modifications, and confidential smart-contract execution.
Hedera: A Public Hashgraph Network & Governing Council
WhitepaperBaird, L.; Harmon, M.; Madsen, P.2019, hashgraph, dag, performancen.a.Distributed ledger technologies (DLT) have the potential to disrupt and transform existing markets in multiple industries. However, in our opinion there are five fundamental obstacles to overcome before distributed ledgers can be widely accepted and adopted by enterprises. In this paper we will examine these obstacles and discuss why Hedera Hashgraph is well-suited to support a vast array of applications and become the world’s first mass-adopted public distributed ledger.
Bitcoin MagazineWebsiteBTC Inc.n.d., research, education, finance, technologyn.a.Bitcoin Magazine is the oldest and most established source of news, information and expert commentary on Bitcoin, its underlying blockchain technology and the industry that has grown up around it. Since 2012, Bitcoin Magazine has provided analysis, research, education and thought leadership at the intersection of finance and technology.
BitcoinistWebsiteBitcoinist.comn.d., blockchain, news, revviews, educationn.a.Founded in 2013, Bitcoinist has quickly grown to become the prime source for the latest information about Bitcoin, digital currency and blockchain technology. Bitcoinist is now visited by over 2 million readers each month thanks to one of the most reliable teams in the space, consisting of three experienced editors and over a dozen writers. From business news and technical price analysis to community events, Bitcoinist provides valuable insight in its wide coverage of the entire cryptocurrency industry.
BTC EchoWebsiteBTC-ECHO GmbHn.d., education, bitcoin, cryptocurrencyn.a.BTC-ECHO ist die führende deutschsprachige Medienplattform in den Bereichen Blockchain, digitale Währungen und Bitcoin. Wir berichten tagesaktuell über alle wichtigen Entwicklungen an den digitalen Währungsmärkten und liefern unseren Lesern eine kritische und unabhängige Einordnung der Nachrichtenlage.
CCNWebsiteCCN.comn.d., markets, bitcoin,, also known as CCN Markets, was founded in the summer of 2013 in Norway by serial entrepreneur Jonas Borchgrevink as “”. Although bitcoin gained plenty of coverage in mainstream media, there were few crypto-focused online publications at the time. CryptoCoinsNews quickly became one of the largest and most trusted cryptocurrency news outlets, and the team behind it expanded rapidly.
CointelegraphWebsiteCointelegraphn.d., blockchain, bitcoin, news, charts, reportsn.a.Founded in 2013, Cointelegraph is the leading independent digital media resource covering a wide range of news on blockchain technology, crypto assets, and emerging fintech trends. Each day our team delivers the most accurate and up-to-date news from both the decentralized and centralized worlds.The editorial content is based on our passion to deliver unbiased news, in-depth analytics, comprehensive cryptocurrency price charts, insightful opinion pieces, as well as regular reports on the social transformation that digital currencies bring.
CoinDeskWebsiteCoinDeskn.d., data, events and educationn.a.CoinDesk is a media platform for investors exploring how cryptocurrencies and digital assets are contributing to the evolution of the global financial system. Its mandate is to inform, educate, and connect the global investment community through news, data, events and education.
Let’s Talk BitcoinPodcastBTC Inc.n.d., articles, forumsn.a.The Let’s Talk Bitcoin Network (LTBN) is a publishing platform giving voice to the influencers in cryptocurrency and the blockchain technology sector — through podcasts, articles and discussion forums.
MediumWebsiteMediumn.d., articles, blockchainn.a.Medium taps into the brains of the world’s most insightful writers, thinkers, and storytellers to bring you the smartest takes on topics that matter. In the past years medium gained a lot of popularity for blogposts on blockchain technology.
Reddit (Ethereum)WebsiteReddit Inc.n.d., discussions, ethereumn.a.Reddit is home to thousands of communities, endless conversation, and authentic human connection. Whether you're into breaking news, sports, TV fan theories, or a never-ending stream of the internet's cutest animals, there's a community on Reddit for you.
Reddit (Bitcoin)WebsiteReddit Inc.n.d., discussions, bitcoinn.a.Reddit is home to thousands of communities, endless conversation, and authentic human connection. Whether you're into breaking news, sports, TV fan theories, or a never-ending stream of the internet's cutest animals, there's a community on Reddit for you.
EpicenterPodcastEpicentern.d., bitcoin, blockchain, wallets, exchanges, n.a.Epicenter is the OG of crypto podcasts, making sense of cryptocurrencies and blockchain since before they were cool. Through interviews with founders and buidlers, we explore the technical, economic and social implications of this game-changing industry.
Andreas Antonopoulos TwitterTwitterAntonopoulos, A. n.d., openblockchainn.a.Andreas M. Antonopoulos (@aantonop) is a best-selling author, speaker, educator, and one of the world’s foremost bitcoin and open blockchain experts. He is known for delivering electric talks that combine economics, psychology, technology, and game theory with current events, personal anecdote, and historical precedent effortlessly transliterating the complex issues of blockchain technology out of the abstract and into the real world.
Changpeng Zhao TwitterTwitterZhao, C. n.d., exchange, twittern.a.Changpeng Zhao (Chinese: 赵长鹏) is a Chinese-Canadian business executive, who is the founder and CEO of Binance, the world's largest cryptocurrency exchange by trading volume, as of April 2018.[1][2] Zhao was previously a member of the team that developed and also served as chief technology officer of OKCoin
Charlie Lee TwitterTwitterLee, C.n.d., twittern.a.Charles Lee is a computer scientist, best known as the creator of Litecoin. He serves as the managing director of the Litecoin Foundation. As of July 2013, he also worked for Coinbase.
Vitalik Buterin TwitterTwitterButerin, V.n.d., twittern.a.Vitalik Buterin is a Russian-Canadian programmer and writer primarily known as a co-founder of Ethereum and as a co-founder of Bitcoin Magazine.
Andreas Antonopoulos YouTubeVideoAntonopoulos, A. n.d., openblockchainn.a.Andreas M. Antonopoulos (@aantonop) is a best-selling author, speaker, educator, and one of the world’s foremost bitcoin and open blockchain experts. He is known for delivering electric talks that combine economics, psychology, technology, and game theory with current events, personal anecdote, and historical precedent effortlessly transliterating the complex issues of blockchain technology out of the abstract and into the real world.
Chris Dunn YouTubeVideoDunn, C.n.d., tradingn.a.Chris Dunn's YouTube channel is all about helping you learn skills to thrive in today's economy.
Cryptocurrency MarketVideoYouTuben.d., investingn.a.The Cryptocurrency Market was founded by Tai Zen , Leon Fu Dot Com™, & David Fong to help bring public awareness and accelerate the adoption of bitcoins, blockchains, and cryptocurrencies.
Epicenter BitcoinVideoYouTuben.d., bitcoin, blockchain, wallets, exchanges, n.a.Epicenter is the OG of crypto podcasts, making sense of cryptocurrencies and blockchain since before they were cool. Through interviews with founders and buidlers, we explore the technical, economic and social implications of this game-changing industry.
Perceived Benefit and Risk as Multidimensional Determinants of Bitcoin Use: A Quantitative Exploratory StudyAcademic PaperAbramova, S.; Böhme, R.2016, risk, benefit37th International Conference on Information Systems, Dublin, IrelandKey Findings: Identify the impact of perceived benefits and risks on Bitcoin use as well as the technological aspects (decentralization, transaction speeds, security and control) on the perceived benefit
Blockchain (Distributed Ledger Technology) Solves VAT FraudAcademic PaperAinsworth, R. T.; Shact, A.2016, dlt, vat, fraudBoston University Law & Economics Research Paper, 41 (16)Key Findings: Elaborate how blockchain enables particular efficiencies to EU VAT collection
Security and Privacy in Decentralized Energy Trading through Multi-Signatures, Blockchain and Anonymous Messaging StreamsAcademic PaperAitzhan, N. Z.; Svetinovic, D.2016,+Blockchain+and+Anonymous+Messaging+StreamsENdlt, security, privacy, energy, IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, 99Key Findings: Implement a proof-of-concept for decentralized energy trading system using blockchain technology enabling peers to anonymously negotiate energy prices and securely perform trading transactions
MedRec: Using Blockchain for Medical Data Access and Permission ManagementAcademic PaperAzaria A.; Ekblaw A.; Vieira T.; Lippman, A.;2016, healthcare, medicaldata, digitalidentity2nd International Conference on Open and Big Data, Vienna, AustriaKey Findings: Develop a blockchain platform for medical data exchange with access to anonymized data as mining incentive
Enabling blockchain innovations with pegged sidechainsAcademic PaperBack, A.; Corallo, M.M Dashjr, L.; Friedenbach, M.; Maxwell, G.; Miller, A.; Poelstra, A.; Timón, J.; Wuille, P.2014, sidechainBlockstream Findings: Develop and propose a sidechain-based concept for transferring digital assets between different blockchain platforms
Blockchain – The Gateway To Trust-Free Cryptographic TransactionsAcademic PaperBeck, R.; Czepluch, J.; Lollike, N.; Malone, S.2016–+The+Gateway+To+Trust-Free+Cryptographic+TransactionsENblockchain, cryptography, trust24th European Conference on Information Systems, İstanbul,TurkeyKey Findings: Develop a proof of concept prototype that has the potential to replace a trust-based coffee shop payment solution
Blockchain as Radical Innovation: A Framework for Engaging with Distributed LedgersAcademic PaperBeck, R.; Müller-Bloch, C.2017, framework, dltHawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Waikaloa, USAKey Findings: Case study in a financial institution analyzing the benefits of blockchain on transaction costs and developing a framework on properly rolling out blockchain systems
Disruptionspotenzial und Implikationen der Blockchain-Technologie am Fallbeispiel der Zeitarbeit–Eine Prozess-und SchwachstellenanalyseAcademic PaperBeinke, J. H., Tönnissen, S., & Teuteberg, F.2018–Eine+Prozess-und+SchwachstellenanalyseDEblockchain, process, workHMD Praxis der WirtschaftsinformatikKey Findings: Through a case study in the temporary employment industry, the application potential of the blockchain is discussed and advantages and weaknesses are worked out on the basis of a process analysis.
Copyrights, Privacy, and the BlockchainAcademic PaperBell, T. W.2016,+Privacy,+and+the+BlockchainENblockchain, privacy, copyrightOhio North University Law Review, 42 (16)Key Findings: Explain the conflicting law in the United States regarding copyrights and privacy rights that could be overcome through blockchain technologies
The BLOCKCHAIN: The Future of Business Information Systems?Academic PaperBrandon, D.2016, informationsystem, ISInternational Journal of the Academic BusinessKey Findings: Explore and illustrate in detail possible business disciplines in which the blockchain can be utilized
Value Of Decentralized Consensus Systems – Evaluation FrameworkAcademic PaperBrenig, C.; Schwarz, J.; Rückeshäuser, N.2016–+Evaluation+FrameworkENdecentralization, consensus, framework24th European Conference on Information Systems, İstanbul,TurkeyKey Findings: Develop and test an evaluation framework regarding the value of decentralized consensus systems in order to provide a basis for the assessment of business models
A next generation smart contract & decentralized application platformAcademic PaperButerin, V.2014, whitepaper, smartcontract, dappsEthereum Wiki Findings: Outlines the underlying ideas of Ethereum as a blockchain with a built-in Turing-complete programming language to create decentralized applications of arbitrary state transition functions
Developing Blockchain Real-Time Clearing and Settlement in the EU, U.S., and GloballyAcademic PaperCaytas, J. D.2016,+U.S.,+and+GloballyENblockchain, clearing, settlement, realtimeColumbia Journal of European LawKey Findings: Explain the diverse impact of blockchain technology on the clearing process and the related actors
Blockchains and Smart Contracts for the Internet of ThingsAcademic PaperChristidis, K.; Devetsikiotis, M.2016, smartcontract, iot, internetofthingsIEEE Access, 4Key Findings: Investigate how a blockchain-IoT combination can cause significant transformations across several industries, paving the way for new business models and novel, distributed applications.
Modeling and Simulation of the Economics of Mining in the Bitcoin MarketAcademic PaperCocco, L.; Marchesi, M.2016, mining, economicsPloS one, 11 (10)Key Findings: Develop and test a model through computational experiments that reproduces stylized facts from Bitcoin real-time price series and core aspects of the mining business
Centrally Banked CryptocurrenciesAcademic PaperDanezis, G.; Meiklejohn, S.2016, cryptocurrency, CBDM, digitalmoneyNetwork and Distributed System Security Symposium, San Diego, USAKey Findings: Introduce and test a cryptocurrency framework in which central banks maintain complete control over the monetary supply, but rely on a distributed set of authorities, or mintettes, to prevent double-spending
The Interplay between Decentralization and Privacy: The Case of Blockchain TechnologiesAcademic PaperDe Filippi, P.2016, privacy, blockchainJournal of Peer Production, 9Key Findings: Analyzes blockchain based networks to reveil the compatibility of transparency and privacy through cryptographic techniques
Information propagation in the Bitcoin networkAcademic PaperDecker C.; Wattenhofer R.2013, informationIEEE Thirteenth International Conference on Peer-to-Peer Computing, Trento, ItalyKey Findings: Analyze consequences of the Bitcoin multi-hop information propagation associated with blockchain forks
Rep on the block: A next generation reputation system based on the blockchainAcademic PaperDennis, R.; Owen, G.2015, blockchain10th International Conference for Internet Technology and Secured Transactions, London, UKKey Findings: Reviews and develops a generalized reputation system that can be applied to multiple networks that is based on the blockchain
The Economics of Bitcoin and Similar Private Digital CurrenciesAcademic PaperDwyer, G.2015, digitalcurrency, privacyJournal of Financial Stability, 17Key Findings: Explain how the use cryptocurrencies and limitation of their quantities can create an equilibrium in which a digital currencies have a positive value
Anonymity in Bitcoin – The Users’ PerspectiveAcademic PaperFabian, B.; Ermakova, T.; Sander, U.2016–+The+Users’+PerspectiveENanonymity, privacy, user, bitcoin37th International Conference on Information Systems, Dublin, IrelandKey Findings: Bitcoin user survey analyzing the effects of varying levels of anonymity suggesting that actions should be undertaken to increase privacy awareness and the level of anonymity
BRIGHT: A concept for a decentralized rights management system based on blockchainAcademic PaperFujimura, S.; Watanabe, H.; Nakadaira, A.; Yamada, T.; Akutsu, A.; Kishigami, J.J.2015, blockchain, digitalidentityIEEE 5th International Conference on Consumer Electronics, Berlin, GermanyKey Findings: Design a blockchain based content distribution system for digital rights management
On the Security and Performance of Proof of Work BlockchainsAcademic PaperGervais, A.; Karame, G. O.; Wüst, K.; Glykantzis, V.; Ritzdorf, H.; Capkun, S;2016, performance, proof-of-workACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security, Vienna, AustriaKey Findings: Analyze the security and performance trade-offs of proof-of-work blockchains regarding double spending and transaction throughput
Securing Video Integrity Using Decentralized Trusted Timestamping on the Bitcoin BlockchainAcademic PaperGipp, B.; Kosti, J.; Breitinger, C.2016, bitcoin, integrity10th Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems, Paphos, CyprusKey Findings: Proposes the use of blockchain technology to secure and verify the integrity of video files by presenting an application that converts a smartphone into a tamper-proof dashboard camera
Pervasive Decentralisation of Digital Infrastructures: A Framework for Blockchain enabled System and Use Case AnalysisAcademic PaperGlaser, F.2017, framework, usecaseHawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Waikaloa, USAKey Findings: Develop an ontology by explaining the common terminology and core concepts of blockchain technology and its implications for digital market models
Beyond Cryptocurrencies - A Taxonomy of Decentralized Consensus SystemsAcademic PaperGlaser, F.; Bezzenberger, L.2015, framework, taxonomy, consensus23rd European Conference on Information Systems, Münster, GermanyKey Findings: Provide a comprehensive taxonomy of decentralized consensus systems to facilitate the classification established and developing cryptocurrencies
On the Fintech Revolution: Interpreting the Forces of Innovation, Disruption, and Transformation in Financial ServicesAcademic PaperGomber, P., Kauffman, R. J., Parker, C., Weber B. W.2018,+Disruption,+and+Transformation+in+Financial+ServicesENfintech, innovation, financialservicesJournal of Management Information Systems, 35 (1), pp. 220-265Key Findings: Several main points related to how the fintech sector will develop over time, and what IS researchers can do in order to contribute new knowledge in this vibrant area of technology innovation, process disruption, and services transformation
World of Empowered IoT UsersAcademic PaperHashemi, S. H.; Faghri, F.; Rausch, P.; Campbell, R. H.2016, internetofthings, digitalidentityIEEE 1st International Conference on Internet-of-Things Design and Implementation , Berlin, GermanyKey Findings: Describe a user-centric multi-level multiple granularity mechanism to share the data from IoT devices to people and organizations
Decentralized Banking: Monetary Technocracy in the Digital AgeAcademic PaperHayes, A.2016, financialservices, defi10th Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems, Paphos, CyprusKey Findings: Investigate the feasibility of a blockchain based currency system to substitute a central bank
The Ring of Gyges: Investigating the Future of Criminal Smart ContractsAcademic PaperJuels, Ari; Kosba, Ahmed; Shi, Elaine2016, crimeACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security,Vienna, AustriaKey Findings: Show that anonymity enables criminal smart contracts for various crimes such as illegale information leakage or the facilitation of realworld crimes
Towards a Framework of Digital Platform Disruption: A Comparative Study of Centralized & Decentralized Digital Payment ProvidersAcademic PaperKazan, E.; Tan, C.-W.; Lim, E. T. K.2014, platform, decentralizationAustralasian Conference on Information Systems, Auckland, New ZealandKey Findings: Present a framework for examining the disruptive potential of decentralized digital payment platforms on open innovation and market disruption acceleration
Beyond Bitcoin: Issues in Regulating Blockchain TransactionsAcademic PaperKiviat, T.2015, regulation, blockchain, transactionsDuke Law Journal, 65 (3)Key Findings: Presents blockchain's cryptographic foundations to elevate the legal community's understanding of the technology and inform policymakers and practitioners regarding different regulatory schemes
Digital Supply Chain Transformation toward Blockchain IntegrationAcademic PaperKorpela, K.; Hallikas, J.; Dahlberg, T.2017, blockchain50th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 2017, Manoa, USAKey Findings: Investigate that blockchain integration into the supply chain provides major benefits regarding transaction processing and time-stamping
Hawk: The Blockchain Model of Cryptography and Privacy-Preserving Smart ContractsAcademic PaperKosba, A.; Miller, A.; Shi, E.; Wen, Z.; Papamanthu, C.2016, smartcontract, privacyIEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy,San Jose, USAKey Findings: Develop a decentralized smart contract system that retains transactional privacy from the public by decrypting financial transactions
New Kids on the Blockchain: How Bitcoin's Technology Could Reinvent the Stock MarketAcademic PaperLee, L.2016's+Technology+Could+Reinvent+the+Stock+MarketENbitcoin, blockchain, stockmarket, defiHastings Business Law Journal, 12 (2)Key Findings: Develop a peer-to-peer stock market system, analyze its legal implications and the fit with current legislation and regulation
Inclusive Block Chain ProtocolsAcademic PaperLewenberg, Y.; Sompolinsky, Y.; Zohar, A.2015, protocol19th International Conference Financial Cryptography and Data Security, San Juan, Puerto RicoKey Findings: Introduce a new kind of protocol which integrates the contents of off-chain blocks into the ledger and thereby increases the influence of weaker miners and increases transaction volumes
Opportunities and risks of Blockchain Technologies in payments – a research agendaAcademic PaperLindman, J.; Tuunainen, V.K.; Rossi, M.2017–+a+research+agendaENblockchain, payments, research50th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Manoa, USAKey Findings: Outline an initial research agenda and research questions for information systems research on blockchain based payment approaches
Sharing ledgers for sharing economies: an exploration of mutual distributed ledgers (aka blockchain technology)Academic PaperMainelli, M.; Smith, M.2015, dlt, blockchainThe Journal of Financial Perspectives: FinTechKey Findings: Develop interlinked mutual distributed ledgers and identify their potential for financial services , anti-money-laundering, insurance, and credit services
Uncovering the Bitcoin Blockchain: An Analysis of the Full Users GraphAcademic PaperMaesa, D. d. F.; Marino, A.; Ricci, L.2016, blockchain, usergraphIEEE International Conference on Data Science and Advanced Analytics, Montreal, CanadaKey Findings: Analyze the Bitcoin network to identify centralized nodes and the agglomeration of wealth
From 'Blockchain Hype' to a Real Business Case for Financial MarketsAcademic PaperMorini, M.2017'Blockchain+Hype'+to+a+Real+Business+Case+for+Financial+MarketsENblockchain, usecase, defi, financialservicesJournal of Financial Transformation, 45Key Findings: Critically revise blockchain business cases for improving financial markets regarding reforms of the business model itself
The Commercial Law of Bitcoin and Blockchain TransactionsAcademic PaperMcJohn, S. M.; McJohn, I.2016, blockchain, transactions, scalabilityUniform Commercial Code Law Journal, 16 (13)Key Findings: Investigate potential issues for commercial law associated with the proliferation of blockchain technology in commercial transactions
Blockchain technology in healthcare: The revolution starts hereAcademic PaperMettler, M.2016, healthcareIEEE 18th International Conference on e-Health Networking, Applications and Services, Munich, GermanyKey Findings: Illustrate possible influences, goals and potentials of blockchain technology for public healthcare management, user-oriented medical research and drug counterfeiting
Cryptocurrencies and Bitcoin: Charting the Research LandscapeAcademic PaperMorisse, M.2015, bitcoin, research21st Americas Conference on Information Systems, Fjardo, Puerto RicoKey Findings: Systematic literature review examining different cryptocurrencies
Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash SystemAcademic PaperNakamoto, S.2008, whitepaper, p2pBitcoin Findings: Proposes the original idea of Bitcoin as a peer-to-peer cash system with an underlying blockchain and eventual consensus via proof-of-work
Blockchain - A Financial Technology for Future Sustainable DevelopmentAcademic PaperNguyen, Q. K.2016, sustainability3rd International Conference on Green Technology and Sustainable Development, Kaohsiung, TaiwanKey Findings: Conceptually evaluate the potential of blockchain technology to enable a sustainable development of the global economy with benefits for the society and the banking sector
BlockchainAcademic PaperNofer, M.; Gomber, P.; Hinz, O.; Schiereck, D.2017 & Information Systems Engineering, ForthcomingKey Findings: Provide a comprehensive overview over different financial and non-financial applications in the blockchain universe
Securities, Intermediation and the Blockchain - An Inevitable Choice between Liquidity and Legal Certainty?Academic PaperPaech, P.2016,+Intermediation+and+the+Blockchain+-+An+Inevitable+Choice+between+Liquidity+and+Legal+Certainty?ENblockchain, liquidity, regulationUniform Law Review, 21 (4)Key Findings: Outline a consistent international legal framework for securities building upon the possibilities created by blockchain technologies
Trends in crypto-currencies and blockchain technologies: A monetary theory and regulation perspectiveAcademic PaperGareth, W.P.; Panayi, E.; Chapelle, A.2015, blockchain, money, regulationJournal of Financial Perspectives, 3 (3)Key Findings: Conceptualize benefits of blockchain based payment systems and perspective applications of crypto-currencies in the economy
Blockchain and Bitcoin as a Way to Lift a Country out of Poverty - Tourism 2.0 and e-Governance in the Republic of MoldovaAcademic PaperPilkington, M.; Crudu, R.; Grant, L. G.2016, bitcoin, governance, tourismInternational Journal of Internet Technology and Secured Transactions, forthcomingKey Findings: Investigate the blockchain capability to alleviate poverty in politically corrupted states by managing capital flows regarding modern tourism and e-governance
How the Blockchain Revolution Will Reshape the Consumer Electronics IndustryAcademic PaperPilkington, M.; Lee, J.2017, consumerelectronicsIEEE Consumer Electronics Magazine, forthcomingKey Findings: Discuss the potentially revolutionary impact of blockchain technology on supply chain management and potential use cases in consumer electronics and the internet of things
The Law of Smart ContractsAcademic PaperRaskin, M.2016, regulation, lawGeorgetown Technology Review, 304 (1)Key Findings: Establish smart contracts as a modern version of traditional agreements that should not be discouraged by the legislatures or courts
Moving Beyond Bitcoin to an Endogenous Theory of Decentralized Ledger Technology Regulation: An Initial ProposalAcademic PaperReyes, C. L.2016, blockchainVillanova Law Review, 61 (1)Key Findings: Review current regulatory landscape to improving the regulatory landscape regarding decentralized ledger technologies
Conceptualizing CryptolawAcademic PaperReyes, C. L.2017, cryptocurrency, regulationNebraska Law Review, 96Key Findings: Re-theorize cryptolaw as new jurisprudence regarding the implementation and delivery of law through smart contracting, semi-autonomous, and intelligently developing computer code
Overview of Colored CoinsAcademic PaperRosenfeld, M.2012, fungibility, privacyColored Coins
Key Findings: Develops the concept of colored coins as meta-data structures on top of the Bitcoin protocol to allow exchanging and tracking digital assets beyond money on the Bitcoin blockchain
Do We Really Want Blockchain-Based Accounting? Decentralized Consensus as Enabler of Management Override of Internal ControlsAcademic PaperRückeshäuser, N.2017, accounting, consensus13th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatik, St. Gallen, SwitzerlandKey Findings: Assert that blockchain based accounting using proof-of-work consensus enables the circumventing controls by the management through excessive computing power
Proposal of new authentication method in Wi-Fi access using Bitcoin 2.0Academic PaperSanda, T.; Inaba, H.2016, digitalidentityIEEE 5th Global Conference on Consumer Electronics, Kyoto, JapanKey Findings: Propose a blockchain based solution to problems regarding open Wi-Fi hotspots such as insufficient encryption and illegal usage
The Ripple Protocol Consensus AlgorithmAcademic PaperSchwartz, D.; Youngs, N.; Britto, A.2014, consensus, whitepaperRipple: Findings: Propose the ripple consensus mechanism which builds on trusted sub-networks to achieve lower latency
Block-by-Block: Leveraging the Power of Blockchain Technology to Build Trust and Promote Cyber PeaceAcademic PaperShackelford, S.; Myers, S.2017, trust, peaceYale Journal of Law and Technology, 85 (16)Key Findings: Analyze the potential impact of blockchain technology on advancing the cybersecurity of firms across various sectors and industries
Blockchain technology in the chemical industry: Machine-to-machine electricity marketAcademic PaperSikorskia, J. J.; Haughtona, J.; Kraft, M.;2017, chemicalindustry, M2MApplied Energy, 195Key Findings: Present an use case example where a blockchain is employed to facilitate machine-to-machine interactions and establish a M2M electricity market
An Agri-food supply chain traceability system for China based on RFID & blockchain technologyAcademic PaperTian, F.2016, supplychain, food, iot, internetofthings13th International Conference on Service Systems and Service Management, Kunming, ChinaKey Findings: Analyze the applicability of a combined RFID and blockchain system for enabling traceability among the food supply chain
Bitcoin and Beyond: A Technical Survey on Decentralized Digital CurrenciesAcademic PaperTschorsch, F.; Scheuerman, B.2016, money, digitalassetsIEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 18 (3)Key Findings: Overview of literature on decentralized consensus mechanisms under consideration of different platforms
The Great Decentralization: How Web 3.0 Will Weaken CopyrightsAcademic PaperVogel, N.2016, decentralizationJohn Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law, 15 (1)Key Findings: Point out the threat of blockchain technology regarding the support for copyright infringements and impediment of copyright enforcement
The Path of the Blockchain Lexicon (and the Law)Academic PaperWalch, A.2017, law, regulationReview of Banking & Financial Law, 36Key Findings: Critically revise the blockchain vocabulary to help regulators discover the facts about blockchain technology and respond to them appropriately
New kid on the block: a strategic archetypes approach to understanding the BlockchainAcademic PaperWalsh, C.; OReilly, P.; Gleasure, R.; Feller, J.; Li, S.; Cristoforo, J.2016, archetypes, usecase37th International Conference on Information Systems, Dublin, IrelandKey Findings: Review the blockchain literature and identifies eight key system design characteristics that underlie four ascertained blockchain archetypes
Blockchain contract: A complete consensus using blockchainAcademic PaperWatanabe, H; Fujimura, S.; Nakadaira, A.; Miyazaki, Y.; Akutsu, A.; Kishigami,J.J.2015, consensusIEEE 4th Global Conference on Consumer Electronics, Osaka, JapanKey Findings: Developing a new protocol to enable secure blockchain based contract recording
Blockchain contract: Securing a blockchain applied to smart contractsAcademic PaperWatanabe, H; Fujimura, S.; Nakadaira, A.; Miyazaki, Y.; Akutsu, A.; Kishigami, J. J.2016, smartcontractIEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics,Las Vegas, USAKey Findings: Proposing a new consensus mechanism for securing hybrid blockchain based contract management against resource monopolization
The Bitcoin Ecosystem: Disruption Beyond Financial Services?Academic PaperWörner, D.; Bomhard, T. v.; Schreier, Y.P.; Bilgeri, D.2016, ecosystem, defi, financialservices24th European Conference on Information Systems, İstanbul,TurkeyKey Findings: Classify the venture-capital backed start up ecosystem to identify susceptible business sectors and critically discuss Bitcoin's disruptive potential
Ethereum: A secure decentralised generalised transaction ledgerAcademic PaperWood, G.2014, transactionCryptopapers Findings: Discusses and formally defines further developments of the Ethereum protocol to implement a node on the Ethereum network and rely on Ethereum as a decentralized, secure social operating system
The Blockchain as a Software ConnectorAcademic PaperXu, X.; Pautasso, C.; Zhu; L.; Gramoli, V.; Ponomarev; A.; Tran, A. B.; Chen, S.2016, oracle, software13th Working IEEE/IFIP Conference on Software Architecture, Venice, ItalyKey Findings: Provide rationales to support the architectural decision making on whether to employ a decentralized blockchain as opposed to other software solutions
A Taxonomy of Blockchain-Based Systems for Architecture DesignAcademic PaperXu, X; Weber, I; Staples M; Zhu, L; Bosch, J; Bass, L; Pautasso, C; Rimba P2017, taxonomy, architectureIEEE International Conference on Software Architecture (ICSA)Key Findings: Develop a blockchain design taxonomy that contrasts different aspects of decentralization, storage and computation, and configuration regarding fundamental and non-functional properties such as cost efficiency, performance, and flexibility.
An Online Identity and Smart Contract Management SystemAcademic PaperYasin, A.; Liu, L.2016, smartcontract40th IEEE Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference, Atlanta, USAKey Findings: Propose a systematic framework for aggregating online identity and reputation information to provide a holistic approach to personal online behavioural ratings
Corporate Governance and BlockchainsAcademic PaperYermack, D.2017, governance, corporategovernanceReview of Finance, 21(1)Key Findings: Evaluate the effects of blockchain induced transparency on trades for insider trading, real-time accounting and transaction costs
Where is current research on blockchain technology?A systematic ReviewAcademic PaperYli-Huumo, J.; Ko, D.; Choi, S.; Park, S.; Smolander, K.2016, researchPloS one, 11 (10)Key Findings: Reviewing existent blockchain research and identifying currently neglected technological challenges
Towards blockchain-based intelligent transportation systemsAcademic PaperYuan, Y.; Wang, F.2016, logistics, supplychain19th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilKey Findings: Develop and apply a conceptual blockchain model to manage transportation systems in form of realtime ride-sharing services
An IoT electric business model based on the protocol of bitcoinAcademic PaperZhang, Y.; Wen, J.2015, protocol, iot, internetofthings18th International Conference on Intelligence in Next Generation Networks, Paris, FranceKey Findings: Develop and evaluate the transaction of smart property and paid data within IoT through smart contracts
A Secure System For Pervasive Social Network-based HealthcareAcademic PaperZhang; J.; Xue, N.; Huang, X.2016, healthcareIEEE Access, 4Key Findings: Design two blockchain protocols to illustrate the potential for pervasive social network-based healthcare applications
Interactive Incontestable Signature for Transactions Confirmation in Bitcoin BlockchainAcademic PaperZhu, Y.; Guo, R.; Gan, G.; Tsai, W. T.2016, transactions, signatureIEEE 40th Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference, Atlanta, USAKey Findings: Develop an interactive incontestable signature that assures transaction non-repudiation to secure unforgeability and incontestability of transactions
A Dispute Arbitration Protocol Based on a Peer-to-Peer Service Contract Management SchemeAcademic PaperZou, J.; Wang, Y.; Orgun, M. A.2016, protocolIEEE International Conference on Web Services, San Francisco, USAKey Findings: Propose an innovative service contract management scheme that facilitates the monitoring of the execution of a service contract in a peer-to-peer environment
Cryptocurrencies and BlockchainsBookDuPont, Q.2018, incentives, cryptoeconomics, blockchain, cryptocurrencyn.a.General scholarly cryptocurrency and blockchain books: From their shadowy origins in Bitcoin to their use by multinational corporations, cryptocurrencies and blockchains are remaking the rules of digital media and society. Meanwhile, regulators, governments, and the public are trying to make sense of it all. In this accessible book, Quinn DuPont guides readers through the changing face of money and shows how blockchain technology powers new forms of value exchange and social coordination. The reader will learn about cryptocurrency and blockchain developers and users, investment opportunities and risks, changes to politics and law, social and industrial applications, and what this all means for the new economy. Cryptocurrencies and Blockchains dispenses with hype and offers sober reflection on this crucial and timely topic. It is essential reading for students and scholars of culture, politics, media, and the economy, as well as anyone who wants to understand, take part in, or change the future of work and society.
The Blockchain and the New Architecture of TrustBookWerbach, K.2018, blockchain, trust, regulation, crimeThe blockchain entered the world on January 3, 2009, introducing an innovative new trust architecture: an environment in which users trust a system—for example, a shared ledger of information—without necessarily trusting any of its components. The cryptocurrency Bitcoin is the most famous implementation of the blockchain, but hundreds of other companies have been founded and billions of dollars invested in similar applications since Bitcoin's launch. Some see the blockchain as offering more opportunities for criminal behavior than benefits to society. In this book, Kevin Werbach shows how a technology resting on foundations of mutual mistrust can become trustworthy.General scholarly cryptocurrency and blockchain books
Programming Bitcoin: Learn How to Program Bitcoin from ScratchBookSong, J.2019, programming, pythonO'Reilly MediaTechnical books: Dive into Bitcoin technology with this hands-on guide from one of the leading teachers on Bitcoin and Bitcoin programming. Author Jimmy Song shows Python programmers and developers how to program a Bitcoin library from scratch. You’ll learn how to work with the basics, including the math, blocks, network, and transactions behind this popular cryptocurrency and its blockchain payment system. By the end of the book, you'll understand how this cryptocurrency works under the hood by coding all the components necessary for a Bitcoin library. Learn how to create transactions, get the data you need from peers, and send transactions over the network. Whether you’re exploring Bitcoin applications for your company or considering a new career path, this practical book will get you started.
Mastering Ethereum: Building Smart Contracts and DAppsBookAntonopoulos, A. M.; Wood, G.2018, solidity, programmingO'Reilly MediaTechnical books: Ethereum represents the gateway to a worldwide, decentralized computing paradigm. This platform enables you to run decentralized applications (DApps) and smart contracts that have no central points of failure or control, integrate with a payment network, and operate on an open blockchain. With this practical guide, Andreas M. Antonopoulos and Gavin Wood provide everything you need to know about building smart contracts and DApps on Ethereum and other virtual-machine blockchains. Discover why IBM, Microsoft, NASDAQ, and hundreds of other organizations are experimenting with Ethereum. This essential guide shows you how to develop the skills necessary to be an innovator in this growing and exciting new industry.
Mastering Bitcoin, 2nd EditionBookAntonopoulos, A. M.2017, programmingO'Reilly MediaTechnical books: Join the technological revolution that’s taking the financial world by storm. Mastering Bitcoin is your guide through the seemingly complex world of bitcoin, providing the knowledge you need to participate in the internet of money. Whether you’re building the next killer app, investing in a startup, or simply curious about the technology, this revised and expanded second edition provides essential detail to get you started. Bitcoin, the first successful decentralized digital currency, is still in its early stages and yet it’s already spawned a multi-billion-dollar global economy open to anyone with the knowledge and passion to participate. Mastering Bitcoin provides the knowledge. You simply supply the passion.
Introduction Ethereum and Solidity: Foundations of Cryptocurrency and Blockchain Programming for BeginnersBookDannen, C.2017, solidity, programmingApressTechnical books: Learn how to use Solidity and the Ethereum project – second only to Bitcoin in market capitalization. Blockchain protocols are taking the world by storm, and the Ethereum project, with its Turing-complete scripting language Solidity, has rapidly become a front-runner. This book presents the blockchain phenomenon in context; then situates Ethereum in a world pioneered by Bitcoin.
Blockchain Enabled Applications: Understand the Blockchain Ecosystem and How to Make it Work for YouBookDhillon, V.; Metcalf, D.; Hooper, M.2017, fabric, sawtooth, programmingApressTechnical books: Work with blockchain and understand its potential application beyond cryptocurrencies in the domains of healthcare, Internet of Things, finance, decentralized organizations, and open science. Featuring case studies and practical insights generated from a start-up spun off from the author’s own lab, this book covers a unique mix of topics not found in others and offers insight into how to overcome real hurdles that arise as the market and consumers grow accustomed to blockchain based start-ups.
Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency Technologies: A Comprehensive IntroductionBookNarayanan, A.; Bonneau, J.; Felten, E. W.; Miller, A.; Goldfeder, S.; Clark, J.2016, proof-of-work, mining, bitcoin, blockchainPrinceton University PressTechnical books: Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency Technologies provides a comprehensive introduction to the revolutionary yet often misunderstood new technologies of digital currency. Whether you are a student, software developer, tech entrepreneur, or researcher in computer science, this authoritative and self-contained book tells you everything you need to know about the new global money for the Internet age. How do Bitcoin and its blockchain actually work? How secure are your bitcoins? How anonymous are users of cryptocurrencies? Can cryptocurrencies be regulated? These are some of the many questions this book answers. It begins by tracing the history and development of Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies, and then gives the conceptual and practical foundations you need to engineer secure software that interacts with the Bitcoin network as well as to integrate ideas from Bitcoin into your own projects. Topics include decentralization, mining, the politics of Bitcoin, altcoins and the cryptocurrency ecosystem, the future of Bitcoin, and more.
Digital Cash: The Unknown History of the Anarchists, Utopians, and Technologists Who Created CryptocurrencyBookBrunton, F.2019, cryptocurrency, bitcoinPrinceton University PressSpecial topics / advanced learning books: Bitcoin may appear to be a revolutionary form of digital cash without precedent or prehistory. In fact, it is only the best-known recent experiment in a long line of similar efforts going back to the 1970s. But the story behind cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and its blockchain technology has largely been untold—until now. In Digital Cash, Finn Brunton reveals how technological utopians and political radicals created experimental money to bring about their visions of the future: protecting privacy or bringing down governments, preparing for apocalypse or launching a civilization of innovation and abundance that would make its creators immortal.
Blockchain and the Law: The Rule of CodeBookDe Filippi, P.; Wright, A.2018, regulation, governanceHarvard University PressSpecial topics / advanced learning books: Since Bitcoin appeared in 2009, the digital currency has been hailed as an Internet marvel and decried as the preferred transaction vehicle for all manner of criminals. It has left nearly everyone without a computer science degree confused: Just how do you “mine” money from ones and zeros? The answer lies in a technology called blockchain, which can be used for much more than Bitcoin. A general-purpose tool for creating secure, decentralized, peer-to-peer applications, blockchain technology has been compared to the Internet itself in both form and impact. Some have said this tool may change society as we know it. Blockchains are being used to create autonomous computer programs known as “smart contracts,” to expedite payments, to create financial instruments, to organize the exchange of data and information, and to facilitate interactions between humans and machines. The technology could affect governance itself, by supporting new organizational structures that promote more democratic and participatory decision making.
The Politics of Bitcoin: Software as Right-Wing ExtremismBookGolumbia, D.2016, liberty, bitcoin, crimeUniversity of Minnesota PressSpecial topics / advanced learning books: The first comprehensive account of Bitcoin’s underlying right-wing politics. Since its introduction in 2009, Bitcoin has been widely promoted as a digital currency that will revolutionize everything from online commerce to the nation-state. Yet supporters of Bitcoin and its blockchain technology subscribe to a form of cyberlibertarianism that depends to a surprising extent on far-right political thought.
Blockchain Research Lab (Arizona State University)School/ UniversityArizona State Universityn.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.We are Arizona State University students, faculty, and staff who believe in the positive impact blockchain technology can have on the world around us. We are developers building solutions, scholars performing research, and innovators working to change the world.The ASU Blockchain Research Lab’s mission is to advance the research and development of blockchain-based technologies for use in Business, Finance, Economics, Mathematics, Computer Science, and all other areas of potential impact. Since the Lab’s creation in early 2017, we have partnered with dozens of industry leaders to provide blockchain backed solutions for real-world problems. In Spring of 2019, the lab was recognized at the NuCypher + CoinList Spring Hackathon by winning the Community Choice Award.
Cambridge Centre for Alternative Finance (Cambridge University)School/ UniversityCambridge Universityn.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.The Cambridge Centre for Alternative Finance is an international interdisciplinary academic research institute dedicated to the study of alternative finance, which includes financial channels and instruments that emerge outside of the traditional financial system (i.e. regulated banks and capital markets). Examples of alternative channels are online 'marketplaces' such as equity- and reward-based crowdfunding, peer-to-peer consumer/business lending, and third-party payment platforms. Alternative instruments include SME mini-bonds, private placements and other 'shadow banking' mechanisms, social impact bonds and community shares used by non-profit enterprises, and alternative currencies such as Bitcoin.
Blockchain Summer School (Copenhagen Business School)School/ UniversityCopenhagen Business Schooln.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.The Blockchain Summer School will be held at IT University of Copenhagen on 12-16 August 2019. The Summer School is an initiative of the European Blockchain Center and run jointly for the fourth year by faculty members from IT University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen Business School and Copenhagen University. The Summer School would not be possible without the generous support of Our Partners.
The Initiative for Cryptocurrencies and Contracts (Cornell University)School/ UniversityCornell Universityn.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.C3 is an initiative of faculty members at Carnegie Mellon University, Cornell University, Cornell Tech, EPFL, ETH Zurich, UC Berkeley, University College London, UIUC and the Technion. It's based at the Jacobs Technion-Cornell Institute at Cornell Tech in NYC.
Blockchain Lab (Delft University of Technology)School/ UniversityDelft University of Technologyn.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.Delft University of Technology has numerous young, motivated and skilled students at phd, msc, and bsc level working in the Blockchain Lab. Our research is fundamental, aimed at the development and evaluation of new generic blockchain concepts, and application-driven, motivated by important application areas, such as transaction processing, e-commerce, and logistics. Much of it is experimental, validating the proposed new concepts by means of implementation and deployment in prototypes that are used in the real world.
Blockchain Center (Frankfurt School of Finance & Management)School/ UniversityFrankfurt School of Finance & Managementn.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.The Frankfurt School Blockchain Center is a think tank and research center which investigates implications of the blockchain technology, crypto assets and distributed ledger technology (DLT) for companies and their business models. Besides the development of prototypes, it serves as a platform for managers, startups, technology and industry experts to share knowledge and best practices. The Blockchain Center also provides new research impulses and develops trainings for students and executives. It focuses on banking, finance, mobility and, “Industrie 4.0”.
Center for Global Finance and Technology (Imperial College London)School/ UniversityImperial College Londonn.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.Imperial College Business School’s Centre for Financial Technology has been established to act as a hub for the interdisciplinary research that is needed to develop innovations, reveal insights and answer questions; bringing together the activities of academics, startup companies, established industry and governmental organisations. The Centre benefits from Imperial College London’s leading position in science and technology, and Imperial College Business School’s outstanding finance department while taking full advantage of London’s unique position as a global financial centre.
Blockchain Futures Lab (Institute for the Future)School/ UniversityInstitute for the Futuren.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.The Blockchain Futures Lab is proud to be a winner of the ONC Challenge of Health and Human Services for the blockchain in health IT. Our paper, entitled “A Blockchain Profile for Medicaid Applicants and Recipients” introduces a strategy for creating smart health profiles that can provide easy access to health services while protecting privacy and security of individual health, financial, and citizenship information.
Blockchain Lab (Marquette University)School/ UniversityMarquette Universityn.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.The Marquette University Blockchain Lab (MUBL) is a student-run organization that aims to accelerate the development and adoption of an open, inclusive and digitally native financial system. Such a system can only be built on blockchain and other distributed ledger technologies (DLT). Since our inception in November 2017, our members have engaged a vibrant mix of enterprises, professional associations and investors. MUBL can educate firms on the implications of technology and outline ways for the company to leverage emerging technology solutions.
MIT Cryptoeconomics Lab (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)School/ UniversityMassachusetts Institute of Technologyn.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.The objective of the MIT Cryptoeconomics Lab is to push the research frontier in the emerging field of cryptoeconomics.
The Media Lab Digital Currency Initiative (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)School/ UniversityMassachusetts Institute of Technologyn.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.The goal of the DCI is to bring together the brightest minds at MIT and elsewhere to conduct the research necessary to support the development of digital currency and blockchain technology. Together with collaborators at other universities and research institutions, we are working with interdisciplinary groups of faculty, students, and research scientists to author research papers, run pilot use cases of the technology, and develop relevant open-source software.
RMIT Blockchain Innovation Hub (RMIT University)School/ UniversityRMIT Universityn.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.RMIT University is known for applied leading-edge research that engages with business and technology. We are an interdisciplinary team of researchers in economics, political-economy, organisational theory, law, sociology, politics and communications. We work on cryptoeconomics, business strategy and adaptation to blockchain technologies, mapping the blockchain economy, and identifying the public policy challenges that will hold back or accelerate this economic revolution.
BlockLab (San Diego Supercomputer Center)School/ UniversitySan Diego Supercomputer Centern.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.With the goal of defining, evaluating and reporting on the key technical, business and managerial questions posed by blockchain and distributed transaction ledger technologies, their commercial applications, and their potential for causing significant disruptions in industry and government.​
Stanford Center for Blockchain Research (Stanford University)School/ UniversityStanford Universityn.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.The Center for Blockchain Research (CBR) is a focused research effort on crypto-currencies and blockchain technologies. The center brings together engineering, law, and economics faculty, as well as post-docs, students, and visitors, to work on technical challenges in the field. The center's primary mission is to support the thriving ecosystem by developing new technologies needed to advance the field. Beyond its research mission, the center runs an extensive education and outreach program, including on-campus courses, MOOCs, workshops, and conferences for the general blockchain community.
Blockchain & Society Policy Research Lab (University of Amsterdam)School/ UniversityUniversity of Amsterdamn.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.We study the societal impact of blockchain technologies from a law and policy perspective. We are thinking about questions such as: How are blockchain applications governed? What internal factors contribute to the success of a blockchain application?; How do different societal domains deal with blockchain technologies and their potential disruptive effect?;What are the most important regulatory issues around blockchain applications, and what are our policy alternatives?
University of Basel Blockchain/DLT (University of Basel)School/ UniversityUniversity of Baseln.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.The CIF investigates the potential that these new technologies have and assesses the extent to which they will affect financial markets, industry, and society. In addition to its fundamental research in this field, the department will focus particularly on discussions involving politics, the public sector and private enterprise.
Blockchain@UBC (University of British Columbia)School/ UniversityUniversity of British Columbian.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.Blockchain@UBC is a multidisciplinary research cluster focusing on blockchain technology as a central component in investigating the broader research question “How can emerging technologies be leveraged to benefit Canadians?” We engage in both research and education to advance the design, development and adoption of blockchain technologies. Our research initiatives bring academics and industry partners together to explore pressing issues and advance the emergence blockchain technologies. Our teaching initiatives span undergraduate, graduate, and executive levels to advance the knowledge and qualifications of students and professionals interested in blockchain technologies.
Blockchain Lab (University of California, Berkeley)School/ UniversityUniversity of California, Berkeleyn.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.The UC Berkeley Blockchain Lab includes a growing network of leading new ventures and blockchain industry projects with the goal of separating hype from reality in this emerging industry.
Blockchain: UCI School of Social Sciences (University of California, Irvine)School/ UniversityUniversity of California, Irvinen.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.Since 2011, researchers at UC Irvine have been studying new cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, as well as the blockchain technologies on which they are based. We have done so alongside research on innovations in mobile and digital financial services and their social, economic, and political consequences for people’s lives. Blockchain and similar systems represent the leading edge of a much longer, global history of accounting—the way humans keep track of reciprocal obligations, distribute and redistribute resources, preserve collective memory, and negotiate authority. Blockchain technology touches, in short, on reckoning in all of its senses, from mathematical to moral. We thus see cryptocurrencies and blockchain as the latest contributions to a vast archive of money’s diverse forms and functions: Mesopotamian cuneiform tablets and Inka khipu, double-entry and distributed ledgers, mag stripes and mobile wallets. We are an interdisciplinary group of social scientists, legal scholars, and technologists. From our vantage point in the public university, we study the implications of these new technologies, ranging from human rights monitoring to financial markets, supply chain management to contracts and identity.
The UCL Centre for Blockchain Technologies (University College London)School/ UniversityUniversity College Londonn.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.The UCL CBT was founded in 2016 to research the effects of Distributed Ledger Technologies and Blockchain into our socio-economic systems and to promote the safe and organic development and adoption of Blockchain-based platforms. The centre is the nucleus for DLT and Blockchain research and engagement across eight different departments at UCL and for its Research and Industry Associate network. Our Research and Industry Associate community consists of over 180 researchers and practitioners from UCL, other academic institutions and companies utilising DLT.
IOHK Blockchain Technology Laboratory (University of Edinburgh)School/ UniversityUniversity of Edinburghn.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.The lab at the university of Edinburgh is led by Professor Aggelos Kiayias and brings together academics from various disciplines and students from undergraduate to PhD level to explore the many open and wide challenges presented by blockchain systems. The areas for study bridge cryptography, algorithms, game theory, economics, regulation and compliance, business, and law. All the research produced will be open source and patent-free. The lab is supported by funding from IOHK, a company leading research and development into blockchains as well as a number of other funding programmes including EU Horizon 2020 and EPSRC TIPS.
Blockchain Initiative (University of Nicosia)School/ UniversityUniversity of Nicosian.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.The University of Nicosia (UNIC) is, by most measures, the leading university globally in the digital currency and blockchain field. UNIC has long considered blockchain technology to be a fundamental technological breakthrough with significant financial and societal implications and selected it as one of its three interdisciplinary priorities across all schools and departments of the university.
Blockchain @ USC (University of Southern California)School/ UniversityUniversity of Southern Californian.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.A number of researchers at USC are working on developing the technology and applications of blockchain. These include ongoing efforts at the Viterbi School of Engineering, the Marshall School of Business, the Keck School of Medicine, and the Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism.
Blockchain Initiative (University of Texas at Austin)School/ UniversityUniversity of Texas at Austinn.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.The University of Texas Blockchain Initiative has three main goals: (i) to support faculty and graduate students research on blockchain across colleges at the University of Texas at Austin; (ii) to teach students the main concepts related to blockchain, cryptocurrency, and digital payments; (iii) to be the hub of knowledge for external relations with industry practitioners, policymakers, and media.
Scotiabank Digital Banking Lab (Western University)School/ UniversityWestern Universityn.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.The Scotiabank Digital Banking Lab (“Lab”) was established in April 2016, supported by a $3 million gift over 10 years from Scotiabank. As the first university research centre focused on financial technologies (“Fintech”), the Lab’s mandate is to study and understand the implications of digital disruption for banking and financial services, and to prepare students to operate in an environment of changing technology and innovation. The Lab promotes student engagement, publishes targeted research, and engages in outreach to stakeholders in Canada and abroad
The CryptoEconomics Lab at Ivey Business School (Western University)School/ UniversityWestern Universityn.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.Cryptoeconomics is an emerging discipline which examines the protocols and incentives that govern the production, distribution, and consumption of digital goods and services within decentralized online platforms.
Blockchain Center (University of Zurich)School/ UniversityUniversity of Zurichn.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.We are the UZH Blockchain Center .Being the largest of Switzerland, and home to the most diverse areas of Academia, the University of Zurich demonstrates a unique multidisciplinary approach to the field, with Faculty members from Computer Science, Law, Business, Finance and Complexity Science.
blockchain.lab (York University)School/ UniversityYork Universityn.d., blockchaincenter, research, educationn.a.We are researching ways to deliver the blockchain for the enterprise. Blockchain.lab is directed by Prof. Henry Kim at the Schulich School of Business at York University. It was founded by Prof. Kim and Dr. Marek Laskowski. We have engaged on blockchain projects with United Nations, Government of Canada, US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Toronto and Region Conservation Authority, Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Don Tapscott's Blockchain Research Institute, and several Canadian SME's and startups.The aim of blockchain.lab is to approach blockchain from a more circumspect, academic perspective.
The digital agenda of virtual currencies: Can BitCoin become a global currency?Academic PaperCiaian, B.; Rajcaniova, M.; Kancs, d. A.2016, cryptocurrency, exchangerate, supply, demand, financialindicatorsInformation Systems and e-Business ManagementThis paper identifies and analyzes BitCoin features which may facilitate BitCoin to become a global currency, as well as characteristics which may impede the use of BitCoin as a medium of exchange, a unit of account and a store of value, and compares BitCoin with standard currencies with respect to the main functions of money. Among all analyzed BitCoin features, the extreme price volatility stands out most clearly compared to standard currencies. In order to understand the reasons for such extreme price volatility, we attempt to identify drivers of BitCoin price formation and estimate their importance econometrically. We apply time-series analytical mechanisms to daily data for the 2009–2014 period. Our estimation results suggest that BitCoin attractiveness indicators are the strongest drivers of BitCoin price followed by market forces. In contrast, macro-financial developments do not determine BitCoin price in the long-run. Our findings suggest that as long as BitCoin price will be mainly driven by speculative investments, BitCoin will not be able to compete with standard currencies.
Apple Pay, Bitcoin, and Consumers: The ABCs of Future Public Payments LawAcademic PaperBurge, M. E.2016, bitcoin, consumers67 Hastings Law JournalAs technology rolls out ongoing and competing streams of payments innovation, exemplified by Apple Pay (mobile payments) and Bitcoin (cryptocurrency), the law governing these payments appears hopelessly behind the curve. The patchwork of state, federal, and private legal rules seems more worthy of condemnation than emulation. This Article argues, however, that the legal and market developments of the last several decades in payment systems provide compelling evidence of the most realistic and socially beneficial future for payments law. The paradigm of a comprehensive public law regulatory scheme for payment systems exemplified by Articles 3 and 4 of the Uniform Commercial Codehas faded in relevance, while federal law has grown in a specialized consumer protection role. Meanwhile, private contract law has expanded to fill gaps where payment technology has exceeded the scope of public law.
How is Bitcoin money?Academic PaperBjerg, O.2016, credit, fiat, gold, money,Theory, Culture & SocietyBitcoin is a peer-to-peer electronic payment system that operates as an independent currency. This paper is a philosophical investigation of the ontological constitution of Bitcoin. Using Slavoj Žižek’s ontological triad of the real, the symbolic and the imaginary, the paper distinguishes between three ideal typical theories of money: commodity theory, fiat theory, and credit theory. The constitution of Bitcoin is analysed by comparing the currency to each of these ideal types. It is argued that Bitcoin is commodity money without gold, fiat money without a state, and credit money without debt. In conclusion, it is suggested that Bitcoin poses an ideological challenge to conventional forms of money in so far as it not only provokes sedimented beliefs about money but also exposes the forms of exploitation, risk and even violence inherent in the existing system of state authorized credit money.
A Denial of Service attack against fair computations using Bitcoin depositsAcademic PaperBeekman, J. G.2016, security, bitcoin, multipartycomputation, denial-of-serviceInformation Processing Letters, Volume 116, Issue 2, Pages 144-146, ISSN 0020-0190, supports complex transactions where the recipient of a transaction can be programmatically determined. Using these transactions, multi-party computation protocols that aim to ensure fairness among participants have been designed. We present a Denial of Service attack against these protocols that results in a net loss for some or all of the honest parties involved, violating those fairness goals.
Refund attacks on Bitcoin’s Payment ProtocolAcademic PaperMcCorry, P.;Shahandashti, S. F.;Hao, F.2016, bitcoin, blockchain, security, attack, paymentsecurity, paymentsystems, computerscience Cryptology ePrint ArchiveBIP70 is a community-accepted Payment Protocol standard that governs how merchants and customers perform payments in Bitcoin. This standard is supported by most major wallets and the two dominant. Payment Processors: Coinbase and BitPay, who collectively provide the infrastructure for accepting Bitcoin as a form of payment to more than 100,000 merchants. In this paper, we present new attacks on the Payment Protocol, which affect all BIP70 merchants. The Silkroad Trader attack highlights an authentication vulnerability in the Payment Protocol while the Marketplace Trader attack exploits the refund policies of existing Payment Processors. Both attacks have been experimentally verified on real-life merchants using a modified Bitcoin wallet. The attacks have been acknowledged by both Coinbase and Bitpay with temporary mitigation measures put in place. However, to fully address the identified issues will require revising the BIP70 standard. We present a concrete proposal to revise BIP70 by providing the merchant with publicly verifiable evidence to prevent both attacks.
How can cryptocurrency and blockchain technology play a role in building social and solidarity finance?Academic PaperScott, B.2016, blockchain, socialfinance, solidarityUnited Nations Research Institute for Social DevelopmentThe decentralized digital currency Bitcoin—and its underlying “blockchain” technology—has created much excitement in the technology community, but its potential for building truly empowering social and solidarity-based finance has yet to be tested. This paper provides a primer on the basics of Bitcoin and discusses the existent narratives about the technology’s potential to facilitate remittances, financial inclusion, cooperative structures and even micro-insurance systems. It also flags up potential points of concern and conflict; such as the tech-from-above “solutionism” and conservative libertarian political dynamics of some of the technology start-up community that surrounds Bitcoin. As a way of contrast the paper considers “blockchain 2.0” technologies with more overtly communitarian ideals and their potential for creating “cooperation at scale”. It concludes with suggestions for future research.
Opportunities and risks associated with the advent of digital currency in the CaribbeanAcademic PaperBissessar, S.2016, internet, fundtransfer, development, societyEconomic Commission for Latin America and the CaribbeanThis report examines the usage of digital currency technology in the Caribbean subregion with a view to drawing attention to the opportunities and risks associated with this new phenomenon. It discusses the broader context of an emerging activity at the global level and considers how this technology could address subregional deficiencies in the electronic payment infrastructure.
Bitcoin: The revolution of the payment system?Academic PaperWonglimpiyarat, J.2016, s-curves, cashless, paymentsystem, revolutionJournal of Payments Strategy & SystemsThis paper discusses whether Bitcoin could revolutionise our payment system and replace our cash-based society. The analysis, in an attempt to understand the process of technological change, is based on the technology S-curve. This paper discusses the problems that hinder Bitcoin’s achieving wide adoption, as it has not been well received by international government central banks. Interestingly, the swing of S-curves is not strong enough to cause a paradigm shift. The results have shown parallel S-curve trajectories of electronic money innovations, signifying a move from a cash-based economy toward a less cash-based society. The paper provides useful information to support the diffusion of Bitcoin innovation.
Bitcoin: Main Trends and PerspectivesAcademic PaperEgorova, N. E.; Torzhevskiy, K. A.2016, trendsBritish Journal of Economics, Management & TradeThis paper discusses whether Bitcoin could revolutionise our payment system and replace our cash-based society. The analysis, in an attempt to understand the process of technological change, is based on the technology S-curve. This paper discusses the problems that hinder Bitcoin’s achieving wide adoption, as it has not been well received by international government central banks. Interestingly, the swing of S-curves is not strong enough to cause a paradigm shift. The results have shown parallel S-curve trajectories of electronic money innovations, signifying a move from a cash-based economy toward a less cash-based society. The paper provides useful information to support the diffusion of Bitcoin innovation.
The Other Side of the Coin: User Experiences with Bitcoin Security and Privacy?Academic PaperKrombholz, K.; Judmayer,A.;Gusenbauer, M.;Weippl, E.2016, userexperience, security, privacyFinancial Cryptography and Data Security 2016We present the first large-scale survey to investigate how users experience the Bitcoin ecosystem in terms of security, privacy and anonymity. We surveyed 990 Bitcoin users to determine Bitcoin management strategies and identified how users deploy security measures to protect their keys and bitcoins. We found that about 46% of our participants use web-hosted solutions to manage at least some of their bitcoins, and about half of them use exclusively such solutions. We also found that many users do not use all security capabilities of their selected Bitcoin management tool and have significant misconceptions on how to remain anonymous and protect their privacy in the Bitcoin network. Also, 22% of our participants have already lost money due to security breaches or self-induced errors. To get a deeper understanding, we conducted qualitative interviews to explain some of the observed phenomena.
Blindly Signed Contracts: Anonymous On-Blockchain and Off-Blockchain Bitcoin TransactionsAcademic PaperHeilman, E.; Baldimtsi, F.; Goldberg, S.2016, blockchain, privacy, anonymity, smartcontract, signaturesCryptology ePrint ArchiveAlthough Bitcoin is often perceived to be an anonymous currency, research has shown that a user’s Bitcoin transactions can be linked to compromise the user’s anonymity. We present solutions to the anonymity problem for both transactions on Bitcoin’s blockchain and off the blockchain (in so called micropayment channel networks). We use an untrusted third party to issue anonymous vouchers which users redeem for Bitcoin. Blind signatures and Bitcoin transaction contracts (aka smart contracts) ensure the anonymity and fairness during the bitcoin ↔ voucher exchange. Our schemes are practical, secure and anonymous.
Bitcoin CovenantsAcademic PaperMoser, M.; Eyal, I.; Gun Sirer, E.2016 language, consensus, standard block, logical location, script program Financial Cryptography and Data Security 2016This paper presents an extension to Bitcoin’s script language enabling covenants, a primitive that allows transactions to restrict how the value they transfer is used in the future. Covenants expand the set of financial instruments expressible in Bitcoin, and enable new powerful and novel use cases. We illustrate two novel security constructs built using covenants
Of Two Minds, Multiple Addresses, and One Ledger: Characterizing Opinions, Knowledge, and Perceptions of Bitcoin Across Users and Non-UsersAcademic PaperGao, X.; Clark, G.D.; Lindqvist, J.2016, cryptocurrency, digital currency, interview SIGCHI 2016 ProceedingsDigital currencies represent a new method for exchange -- a payment method with no physical form, made real by the Internet. This new type of currency was created to ease online transactions and to provide greater convenience in making payments. However, a critical component of a monetary system is the people who use it. Acknowledging this, we present results of our interview study (N=20) with two groups of participants (users and non-users) about how they perceive the most popular digital currency, Bitcoin. Our results reveal: non-users mistakenly believe they are incapable of using Bitcoin, users are not well-versed in how the protocol functions, they have misconceptions about the privacy of transactions, and that Bitcoin satisfies properties of ideal payment systems as defined by our participants. Our results illustrate Bitcoin's tradeoffs, its uses, and barriers to entry.
Retricoin: Bitcoin based on compact proofs of retrievabilityAcademic PaperSengupta, B.; Bag, S.; Ruj,S.; Sakurai, K.2016, human-computer interaction, pattern recognition, computer networksICDCN '16 Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Distributed Computing and Networking Article No. 14Bitcoin is a fully decentralized electronic cash system. The generation of the proof-of-work in Bitcoin requires large amount of computing resources. However, this huge amount of energy is wasted as one cannot make something useful out of it. In this paper, we propose a scheme called Retricoin which replaces the heavy computational proof-of-work of Bitcoin by proofs of retrievability that have practical benefits. To guarantee the availability of an important but large file, we distribute the segments of the file among the users in the Bitcoin network. Every user who wants to mine Bitcoins must store a considerable portion of this file and prove her storage to other peers in the network using proofs of retrievability. The file can be constructed at any point of time from the users storing their respective segments untampered. Retricoin is more efficient than the existing Permacoin scheme in terms of storage overhead and network bandwidth required to broadcast the proof to the Bitcoin network. The verification time in our scheme is comparable to that of Permacoin and reasonable for all practical purposes. We also design an algorithm to let the miners in a group (or pool) mine collectively.
The Bitcoin Brain Drain: A Short Paper on the Use and Abuse of Bitcoin Brain WalletsAcademic PaperVasek, M.; Bonneau, J.; Castellucci, R.;Keith, C.; Moore, T.2016, wallets, passwords, cybercrime measurementn.a.In the cryptocurrency Bitcoin, users can deterministically derive the private keys used for transmitting money from a password. Such “brain wallets” are appealing because they free users from storing their private keys on untrusted computers. Unfortunately, they also enable attackers to conduct unlimited offline password guessing. In this paper, we report on the first large-scale measurement of the use of brain wallets in Bitcoin. Using a wide range of word lists, we evaluated around 300 billion passwords. Surprisingly, after excluding activities by researchers, we identified just 884 brain wallets worth around $100K in use from September 2011 to August 2015. We find that all but 21 wallets were drained, usually within 24 hours but often within minutes. We find that around a dozen “drainers” are competing to liquidate brain wallets as soon as they are funded. We find no evidence that users of brain wallets loaded with more bitcoin select stronger passwords, but we do find that brain wallets with weaker passwords are cracked more quickly.
Incentive Compatibility of Bitcoin Mining Pool Reward FunctionsAcademic PaperSchrijvers, O.; Bonneau, J.; Boneh, J.; Roughgarden, T.2016, mining, reward, gametheory, bitcoinn.a.In this paper we introduce a game-theoretic model for reward functions within a single Bitcoin mining pool. Our model consists only of an unordered history of reported shares and gives participating miners the strategy choices of either reporting or delaying when they discover a share or full solution. We defined a precise condition for incentive compatibility to ensure miners strategy choices optimize the welfare of the pool as a whole. With this definition we show that proportional mining rewards are not incentive compatible in this model. We introduce and analyze a novel reward function which is incentive compatible in this model. Finally we show that the popular reward function pay-per-lastN-shares is also incentive compatible in a more general model.
Speed Optimizations in Bitcoin Key Recovery AttacksAcademic PaperCourtois, N.; Song, G.;Castellucci, R.2016, elliptic curve, cryptography, cryptocurrency, brain walletCryptology ePrint ArchiveIn this paper we study and give the first detailed benchmarks on existing implementations of the secp256k1 elliptic curve used by at least hundreds of thousands of users in Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies. Our implementation improves the state of the art by a factor of 2.5, with focus on the cases where side channel attacks are not a concern and a large quantity of RAM is available. As a result, we are able to scan the Bitcoin blockchain for weak keys faster than any previous implementation. We also give some examples of passwords which have we have cracked, showing that brain wallets are not secure in practice even for quite complex passwords.
Bank FrickCompany/ Institutebank@bankfrick.lin.d., regulation, investment Frick specialises in banking for intermediaries. The Liechtenstein bank offers a fully integrated range of classic and block-chain banking services. Its clients include Fintechs, asset managers, payment service providers, family offices, fund promoters, pension funds and trustees.
Nägele RechtsanwälteCompany/ Instituteoffice@naegele.lawn.d.http://naegele.lawDEtax consulting, lawyer firm specializes in public and private commercial law with an emphasis on IT, Internet, capital markets, telecommunications, business, corporate, employment, contract, and property law. At NÄGELE Attorneys at Law, we are proud to represent international companies, regional SMEs and family businesses, as well as private individuals and public institutions.
Sirius Trusted Technologies Ltd.Company/ InstituteSirius Trusted Technologiesn.d., trustee, escrow a rapidly evolving world of digital assets, there is a systemic lack of traditional safety and reliability. Since the executives of Sirius are very experienced in these topics and provide comfort, trust and sustainability for decades, they decided to offer services such as secure storage of digital assets. In addition, they are happy to advise clients on regulatory and structural aspects around the topics of Fintech, Blockchain, Token, TGE, STO, Bitcoin and other crypto currencies. AGCompany/ Instituteoffice@21.financen.d.http://www.area2invest.comDEfinance, regulation, investment digitalize the world of securities and token issuances with our marketplace area2Invest. In accordance with regulatory requirements we make financial products more transparent, cost- and time-efficient for investors and issuers.We offer a wide range of investment opportunities; Investor onboarding for non- and professional investors; Listing of traditional and tokenized financial products;Cross-border private and public placements
Ledgerlabs KranzCompany/ Instituteinfo@ledgerlabs.lin.d.https://www.ledgerlabs.liDEinformation, blog, research is a source of information for investors, entrepreneurs and interested parties on matters relating to Distributed Ledger Technologies (DLT). As a partner for blockchain, smart contracts and crypto-assets, Ledgerlabs offers a wide range of practical information in one place.
Calidris Fintech AGCompany/ Instituteinfo@calidris.emailn.d., regulation, investment decken die gesamte Wert­schöpfungs­kette der Fintech­ökonomie ab und geben unseren Nutzern mit unserem dezentral­isierten Wallet die volle Kontrolle über Ihre digitalen Assets.
Cryptomedia AgencyCompany/ InstituteCryptomedian.d., marketing is a creative digital and design agency based in Liechtenstein. We help blockchain & crypto start-ups achieve success through multi-channel community management. We provide on-going services for advertising, social media, content marketing, video messaging, and design. In short, we are doing, not talking!
Finanzmarktaufsicht LiechtensteinCompany/ Instituteinfo@fma-li.lin.d. Liechtenstein
Crypto Country AssociationCompany/ Institutehoi@cryptocountry.lin.d., education Crypto Country Association is an association dedicated to supporting the blockchain and crypto currency sector in Liechtenstein. The aim is to coordinate the application and dissemination of these areas in Liechtenstein and beyond and at the same time to ensure quality. The association maintains close contact with authorities, associations and industry representatives.
Technopark Liechtenstein AGCompany/ Instituteoffice@tpfl.lin.d. space, programming room for technology startups. We help our members to realize their ideas. Technopark Liechtenstein offers space for new cooperation, for ideas, technological inventions and developments and, above all, for what makes startups successful: people.
SMART VALOR AGCompany/ Institutetalk@smartvalor.comn.d., regulation, investment Token Exchange for Alternative Investments. We tokenize, list and trade alternative investments such as shares in private companies, venture capital funds, real estate and digital assets.
Cryptoz LiechtensteinCompany/ Instituteinfo@cryptoz.lin.d., finance, regulation Liechtenstein is the right partner for blockchain companies who are looking for a service ecosystem which allows to accelerate their business. With our client onboarding platform we are the major service provider for onboarding & compliance outsourcing tailored to ICO/STOs but also financial institutions
Distributed Ventures AGCompany/ Instituteoffice@distributed-ventures.lin.d., accellerator, consulting, venture capital Accelerator. Blockchain-Hub – a Bank Frick Company
INVAO Trading AGCompany/ Institutewelcome@invao.orgn.d., regulation, investment is a global Blockchain Investment Management company. We develop sophisticated financial products with a cross-industry approach to enable investors to participate in Blockchain’s growth potential.
Validity Labs AGCompany/ Instituteinfo@validitylabs.orgn.d., development, programming offer education services on blockchain technology. We can help you on your business problem with a Blockchain Business Case Identifier (BCI) Workshop. We can also support you to build up the technical blockchain understanding by a hands-on Hackathon as a Service (HAAS) or a DApp Developer Training.
Niedermüller Rechtsanwalt - Attorney at LawCompany/ Instituteoffice@niedermueller.lawn.d. consulting, lawyer advise and represent investors in the area of investments in the assertion of claims for damages, in particular in the area of unit-linked life insurance, guaranteed life insurance products or structured and credit-financed (leveraged) investment products.
Universität LiechtensteinCompany/ Instituteinfo@uni.lin.d., education February, the University of Liechtenstein launched a certificate course “Blockchain in Finance and FinTech”. This new course is supported by Bank Frick. The bank supports the development and implementation of the continuing education program over the next five years.
BATLINER WANGER BATLINER Rechtsanwälte AGCompany/ Instituteoffice@bwb.lin.d. consulting, lawyer WANGER BATLINER Rechtsanwälte AG is one of the largest forensically active law firms in Liechtenstein with headquarters in Vaduz.
House of BlockchainCompany/ Instituteinfo@aeternity.comn.d., research, education the heart of Liechtenstein’s financial and legal center, House of Blockchain offers a space for your ideas to flourish. House of Blockchain’s mission is to become the hub and enabler of innovation, helping extend the reach of blockchain technology – both in Liechtenstein and the world.
Blockchain Meetup LiechtensteinCompany/ InstituteBlockchain Meetup Liechtensteinn.d., events to the blockchain community in Liechtenstein and beyond. Everyone is welcome! We are all interested in innovation and blockchain technology with different use cases. We have competent speakers reporting on interesting topics to give you exciting insights first-hand. Discover with us various streams of innovation and let yourselves float to our events.
Ganten Treuhand AGCompany/ Instituteinfo@gantengroup.comn.d.https://www.gantengroup.comDEconsulting, trustee, escrow is an independent fiduciary services group domiciled in Liechtenstein. We provide a personal service with direct access to the firm’s principals. Through our specialist in-house expertise and external network of domestic and international professional advisors, we offer relevant and practical solutions tailored to our clients’ specific requirements. We cooperate closely with one of the most renowned local law firms and thus guarantee excellent legal support in all relevant matters.
Bitcoin Suisse (Liechtenstein) AGCompany/ Instituteinfo@bitcoinsuisse.comn.d., regulation, investment Suisse is pioneering crypto-financial services since 2013. The company played a crucial role in the development of the Crypto Valley and the overall Swiss blockchain ecosystem. The services provided to the global institutional and private client base include Brokerage and Trading, Storage Solutions, Collateralized Lending, Crypto Financial Solutions and other related services such as Staking and Baking.
CoreLedger AGCompany/ Institutecontact@coreledger.netn.d.http://coreledger.netDEdevelopment, programming provides a decentralized, unlimited, and extendable operating system for token economies, designed for all types of assets, commodities, and services. CoreLedger AG was founded in Liechtenstein, in March 2017.
ICO.liCompany/ InstituteICO.lin.d., blog Blockchain Blog from Liechtenstein
Ungültigen Link oder Fehler gefunden? Gib uns doch kurz Bescheid!